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25 Feb 2011
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Chapter 10
๎€General Characteristics of Mood Disorders
๎€‚Mood disorders involved disabling disturbances in emotion, from the sadness of
depression to the elation and irritability of mania
๎€ƒPanic attaches, substance abuse, sexual dysfunction, personality
๎€‚Depression: Signs and Symptoms
๎€ƒDepression is an emotional state marked by great sadness and feelings of
worthlessness and guilt
๎€ƒWithdrawal from theirs, loss of sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and interest and
pleasure in usual activities
๎€ƒPaying attention is exhausting for depressed people
๎€ƒConversation is also a chore, speak slowly, after long pauses, using few words and
a low, monotonous voice
๎€ƒMay neglect personal hygiene and appearance and make numerous complaints of
somatic symptoms with no apparent physical bases
๎€ƒDepression in children often results in somatic complaints such as headaches or
stomach aches
๎€ƒIn older adults depression is often characterized by distractibility and complaints
of memory loss
๎€ƒFortunately, most depression, although recurrent, tends to dissipate with them
๎€ƒAbout one third of depressed people suffer from chronic depression
๎€ƒSuicide is a risk
๎€ƒMania is an emotional state or mood of intense but unfounded elation
accompanied by irritability, hyperactivity, talkativeness, flight of ideas,
distractibility, and impractical grandiose plans
๎€ƒPeriods of depression may at times suddenly become manic
๎€ƒMay last from several days to months, readily recognized by loud incessant
stream of remarks, full of puns, jokes, rhyming, and interjections
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๎€ƒDifficult to interrupt
๎€ƒRapidly jumps from topic to topic
๎€ƒAnnoyingly sociable, and intrusive constantly and sometimes purposelessly busy
๎€‚Formal diagnostic listings of mood disorders
๎€ƒDiagnosis of depression
โ€ขMajor depressive disorder (MDD) requires the presence of 5 of the following
for more than 2 weeks
๎€‚Sad, depressed mood, most of the day, nearly every day
๎€‚Loss of interest and pleasure in usual activities
๎€‚Difficulty sleeping
๎€‚Shift in activity level๎€„becoming lethargic or agitated
๎€‚Poor appetite and weight loss, or increased appetite and weight gain
๎€‚Loss of energy, great fatigue
๎€‚Negative self concept, self reproach and self blame, feelings of
worthlessness and guilt
๎€‚Complaints or evidence of difficulty in concentrating
๎€‚Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
๎€ƒOther research suggests that depression exists on a continuum of severity
๎€ƒMost prevalent of the disorders
๎€ƒLifetime prevalence rates from 5.2 โ€“ 17.1
๎€ƒIn many countries the prevalence of MDD increased steadily during the latter
part of the 20th C
๎€ƒ2X more common in women than in men
๎€ƒGender difference does not appear in pre-adolescent children
๎€ƒNolenHoeksema and Girgus concluded that girls are more likely than boys to
have certain risk factors for depression even before adolescence but it is only
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when these risk factors interact with the challenges of adolescence that the
gender differences in depression emerge
๎€ƒIt has been found commonly that first episodes of depression have a stronger link
with major life events stress than do subsequent bouts of depression
๎€ƒKindling hypothesis, derived from research on animals, notion that once
depression has already been experienced, it takes relatively less stress to induce
a subsequent recurrence
๎€ƒDiagnosis of Bipolar disorder
โ€ขBipolar I involves episodes of mania or mixed episodes that include symptoms
of both mania and depression
โ€ขSymptoms must be sufficiently severe to impair social and occupational
functioning
โ™ฆIncrease in activity level at work, socially or sexually
โ™ฆUnusual talkativeness; rapid speech
โ™ฆFlight of ideas or subjective impression that thoughts are racing
โ™ฆLess than the usual amount of sleep needed
โ™ฆInflated self-esteem; belief that one has special talents, powers and
abilities,
โ™ฆDistractibility attention easily diverted
โ™ฆExcessive involvement in pleasurable activities that are likely to have
undesirable consequences such as reckless spending
โ€ขOccurs less often than MDD
โ€ขAmong women, episodes of depression are more common, and episodes of
mania less common than among men
๎€‚Heterogeneity within the Categories
๎€ƒA problem in the classification of mood disorders is their great heterogeneity
๎€ƒPeople with the same diagnosis can vary greatly from one another
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Document Summary

mood disorders involved disabling disturbances in emotion, from the sadness of depression to the elation and ir ritability of mania. panic attaches, substance abuse, sexual dysfunction, personality. depression is an emotional state marked by great sadness and feelings of worthlessness and guilt. withdrawal from theirs, loss of sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and interest and pleasure in usual activities. paying attention is exhausting for depressed people. conversation is also a chore, speak slowly, after long pauses, using few words and a low, monotonous voice. may neglect personal hygiene and appearance and make numerous complaints of somatic symptoms with no apparent physical bases. depression in children often results in somatic complaints such as headaches or stomach aches. In older adults depression is often characterized by distractibility and complaints of memory loss. fortunately, most depression, although recurrent, tends to dissipate with them. about one third of depressed people suffer from chronic depression.

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