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Chapter 10

chapter 10


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis
Chapter
10

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Chapter 10
General Characteristics of Mood Disorders
Mood disorders involved disabling disturbances in emotion, from the sadness of
depression to the elation and irritability of mania
Panic attaches, substance abuse, sexual dysfunction, personality
Depression: Signs and Symptoms
Depression is an emotional state marked by great sadness and feelings of
worthlessness and guilt
Withdrawal from theirs, loss of sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and interest and
pleasure in usual activities
Paying attention is exhausting for depressed people
Conversation is also a chore, speak slowly, after long pauses, using few words and
a low, monotonous voice
May neglect personal hygiene and appearance and make numerous complaints of
somatic symptoms with no apparent physical bases
Depression in children often results in somatic complaints such as headaches or
stomach aches
In older adults depression is often characterized by distractibility and complaints
of memory loss
Fortunately, most depression, although recurrent, tends to dissipate with them
About one third of depressed people suffer from chronic depression
Suicide is a risk
Mania is an emotional state or mood of intense but unfounded elation
accompanied by irritability, hyperactivity, talkativeness, flight of ideas,
distractibility, and impractical grandiose plans
Periods of depression may at times suddenly become manic
May last from several days to months, readily recognized by loud incessant
stream of remarks, full of puns, jokes, rhyming, and interjections
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Difficult to interrupt
Rapidly jumps from topic to topic
Annoyingly sociable, and intrusive constantly and sometimes purposelessly busy
Formal diagnostic listings of mood disorders
Diagnosis of depression
Major depressive disorder (MDD) requires the presence of 5 of the following
for more than 2 weeks
Sad, depressed mood, most of the day, nearly every day
Loss of interest and pleasure in usual activities
Difficulty sleeping
Shift in activity levelbecoming lethargic or agitated
Poor appetite and weight loss, or increased appetite and weight gain
Loss of energy, great fatigue
Negative self concept, self reproach and self blame, feelings of
worthlessness and guilt
Complaints or evidence of difficulty in concentrating
Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
Other research suggests that depression exists on a continuum of severity
Most prevalent of the disorders
Lifetime prevalence rates from 5.2 17.1
In many countries the prevalence of MDD increased steadily during the latter
part of the 20th C
2X more common in women than in men
Gender difference does not appear in pre-adolescent children
NolenHoeksema and Girgus concluded that girls are more likely than boys to
have certain risk factors for depression even before adolescence but it is only
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when these risk factors interact with the challenges of adolescence that the
gender differences in depression emerge
It has been found commonly that first episodes of depression have a stronger link
with major life events stress than do subsequent bouts of depression
Kindling hypothesis, derived from research on animals, notion that once
depression has already been experienced, it takes relatively less stress to induce
a subsequent recurrence
Diagnosis of Bipolar disorder
Bipolar I involves episodes of mania or mixed episodes that include symptoms
of both mania and depression
Symptoms must be sufficiently severe to impair social and occupational
functioning
Increase in activity level at work, socially or sexually
Unusual talkativeness; rapid speech
Flight of ideas or subjective impression that thoughts are racing
Less than the usual amount of sleep needed
Inflated self-esteem; belief that one has special talents, powers and
abilities,
Distractibility attention easily diverted
Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that are likely to have
undesirable consequences such as reckless spending
Occurs less often than MDD
Among women, episodes of depression are more common, and episodes of
mania less common than among men
Heterogeneity within the Categories
A problem in the classification of mood disorders is their great heterogeneity
People with the same diagnosis can vary greatly from one another
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