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Chapter 4

chapter 4

Course Code
Konstantine Zakzanis

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Chapter 4
Clinical Assessment Procedures
Reliability and Validity in Assessment
Reliability- how reliable are your results (consistency of a measurement)
oTest-retest reliability( 2 times with different period time)
Instances where you dont care if its reliable is when you want
oAlternate-form reliability
When more than 1 version of the test exists
A situation where this might be useful is when your trying to
memorize something =this creates the practice effect.
oInternal consistency reliability
Its if the test questions are related to one another so they correalte
oContent validity
Whether a measure adequately sample the domain of interest,so
basically the questions on a test should relate to the problems that
your tryin to understand ie: are you depressed for depression rather
than how do u feel playing soccer or sumthing like that.
oCriterion validity( concurrent )->
its when two test prove the same results so it concurrently says the
right answer( like becks test and asus)
Two types of criterion
oConvergent validity(= same results form 2 tests
oDivergent validity= a person who has depression that
says they are not post-tramatically distress shud score
less on the PTSD test( post tramatic test) and score
higer on the other test.
oConstruct validity
Which is a test the relevance as a measure of some characteristics or
construct that is not simply defined. An example is anxiety so if a test
measures this, its said to be measuring the construct of anxiety which
is made up of stress, nervous etc.
So say that we look at a word like anxiety, these are all constructs they
are words that we made up it basically means this that and
this( stress, panic etc).. so it measures the CONSTRUCT..!!!..
Psychological Assessment
Clinical interviews
oCharacteristics of clinical interviews
What questions do you feel would be important to ask of a patient??
Medical issues is important to ask its on axis 3 on dsm
Development ,presten stressors , complaints that they have andask
them about that

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We often wanna interview a collateral person, why?? Because collator
source is some1 like afamily memberor something like that , because
the patient wont know about the disease.
Structured/Semi Structured interviews
oSKIDD- structural test for clinical interview,
oSemi- is natural interview that un veils as a process.
oSo for example, if i were a psychodynamic therapist what would be some of
the questions i would ask?
Have you had any dreams lately, so something aobut the
developmental histry
oIf i were a developmental biologist or a neurologist what wuestion may i ask?
Any hustroy of head injuries, memory problems etc.
o If i were a Cognitive behaviour therapist:
Walk you throughyour train of though
Behavioral Observations
oSo not what the patients says or not says, but its the actions the the patient
does ordonsnt do. For example. Eye contanct : it might show nervouesses ,
fearfull hideing, manipulative.
Psychological Tests
Personality Inventories
oPersonality Assessment Inventory/Personality Assessment Screener
oMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -2 (MMPI-2)
Projective Measures
oRorschach Inkblot Test
oThematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Specific Inventories
oPain Inventories (e.g., P-3; Multidimensional Pain Inventory)
oTraumatic Symptom Inventory
Psychological Screening Measures
Psychological Screening Measures
Example: becj depression inventory:
Beck anixty inventory:
General Personality Inventories
Omnibus Measures->the more sophisticated meotod to understand the
oExtensive measures that attempt to cover a wide range of clinical
oTypically self-report measures
oContain clinical measures and validity measures( something that other tests
dont have its basically a lieing test)!!!!!
oCan directly assess clinical psychopathology (i.e., the PAI), or assess mental
and personality clusters and infer psychopathology from that profile (MMPI-
2) minnusota mutlipersonality inventory->

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Omnibus Personality Measures
The Personality Assessment Inventory
The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a 344 item self-report questionnaire
that attempts to understand an individuals personality traits and characteristics.
Renders diagnostic considerations based on the DSM-IV.
Diagnostic considerations involve Axis I and Axis II disorders personality disorders
for example
Provides clinical and validity scales
Has screening measure to make assessment more efficient, 22 items vs. 344 items
Interpreting Test Results
We used satisitcal infrequenceies, the test is normed or standardized it means
that all these pshygoloistal test were gi!ven to group s of people and measured
and they give these test to normal individual and to gethte lowerst possible score
would be and they also five it to patients with depression.
The concept of normative comparison
Test Scores
Pai test scores on graphs1! Icn- inconsistnacy. Inf in frequent
Projective Techniques
Projective Hypothesis
The notion that highly unstructured stimuli are necessary to bypass defenses in order to
reveal unconscious motives and conflicts.
Projective Techniques
Tests of personality that involve use of unstructured stimulus materials. Use of such
materials maximizes the role of internal factors such as emotions and motives in
Rorschach Inkblot Test
A projective test in which the subject is instructed to interpret a series of ten inkblots
(monochromatic and coloured) reproduced on cards.
Technique consists soliciting a number of responses, and then afterwards asking the person
to explain their answer(s)
Scored on a variety of elements including number of response, popularity of response,
response to colour = indicative of emotional control, shading = anxiety, focus on space =
Thematic Apperception Test
A projective test consisting of a set of 31 black-and-white pictures reproduced on cards, each
depicting a potentially emotion-laden situation
The examinee, presented with the cards one at a time, is instructed to make up a story
about each situation
The actual subset of cards is personalized for the individual
Look for and interpret in regards to consistent or unusual thematic content
Specific Psychological Inventories
Thousands of measures assessing every type of psychopathology
Trauma Symptom Inventory
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