Chapter 1 from textbook, covered in week 1 of FALL 2010 semester

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31 Mar 2011

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-psychopathology: concerned w/the nature & development of abnormal behaviour, thoughts, and
-abnormal behaviour: includes such characteristics as statistical infrequence, violation of norms,
personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and unexpectedness.
-e.g. J. Brett Barkley depression & mania (alternating episodes) occurred in ~1% of pop.
-Stat. Infreq.: described by the normal curve majority of the pop lies in the middle; used
explicitly to diagnose mental retardation
-sometimes infrequencies are not abnormal e.g. athletic strength
-violation of norms: J.B.B. verbal/physical attacks on his wife; e.g. antisocial behav of a
psychopath/OCD patient; norms are different w/in diff cultures
-personal distress: personal suffering; J.B.B. self-consciousness/distress being
-e.g. psychopath has no distress of actions he/she has done
-disability of dysfunction: J.B.B. disruption of marital relationship; impairment in area
of life b/c of abnormality
-e.g. substance-use disorders are defined in part by the social/occupational disability
-a phobia can produce both distress and disability (e.g. fear of flying).
-unexpectedness: distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are
unexpected responses to environmental stressors.
-e.g. anxiety disorders anxiety is unexpected and out of proportion to the situation.
-the major proportion of primary mental health care in Canada is delivered by general
-obtain 5 competencies in order to become registered as a psychologist: (1) interpersonal
relationships; (2) assessment and evaluation (including diagnosis); (3) intervention and
consultation; (4) research; and (5) ethics and standards).
-early demonology: doctrine that an evil being controls his/her mind and body; abnormal behave
was caused by possession, its treatment involved exorcism (casting out of evil sprits by ritualistic
chanting or torture) rendering the body uninhabitable.
-trepanning of skulls (making surgical openings in the living skull) by Stone Age; creating
an opening for the spirits to escape; or to relieve pressure from depressed fractures caused
by war clubs.
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-somatogenesis: Hioppocrates was one of the first to separate medicine from religion, magic and
-such illnesses had natural causes and should be treated like other illnesses.
-somatogenesis notion that something wrong with the soma, or physical body, disturbs
thought and action.
-psychogenesis in contrast, believes that a disturbance has psychological origins.
-Hippocrates classified mental disorders into 3 categories: mania, melancholia, and
phrentits (brain fever).
-normal brain functioning/mental health dependent on the balance of 4 humours of the
body: blood/black bile/yellow bile/phlegm: imbalances produced disorders
-sluggish/dull = predominance of phlegm; melancholia = black bile;
irritability/anxiousness = yellow bile; temperament = blood
-dark ages & demonology: death of Galen and the treatment/investigation of abnormal
behaviour; the churches gained influence; replaced physicians with monks to care for the
-persecution of witches: Malleus Maleficarum (the witches hammer) to guide the
witch hunts; accused of witchcraft were to be tortured if they did not confess to
demonic possessions.
-witchcraft and mental illness: psychotic; many of the accused were not mentally ill;
the delusion-like confessions were obtained during brutal tortures.
-witchcrafts was not the primary interpretation of mental illness. Hospitals also
kept the mentally ill
-lunacy trials began: defendants’ orientation, memory, intellect etc were at issue in
-strange have linked to physical illness or injury or to some emotional shock.
-in all the cases, only one referred to demonological possession; mental
disturbance was no as dominant in Middle Ages as one thought.
-development of asylums; mental hospitals; confinement of the mentally ill began in the
15th/16th Centuries; Leprosariums were converted to asylums (also took in beggars).
-bedlam, a popular name for the St. Mary of Bethlehem for just the mentally ill;
describes the place/scene of wild uproar and confusion; became a tourist attraction.
-Benjamin Rush, believe that mental disorder was caused by an XS of blood in the
brain; believed that lunatics could be cured by being frightened.
-moral treatment: Philippe Pinel mvmt for humanitarian treatment of the
mentally ill in asylums; un-chained them and many became calm and much easier
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to handle; he as not completely equal: reserved more humanitarian treatment to the
upper classes;
-patients had contact with attendants, who encouraged them to engage in
purposeful activity.
-drugs were frequently used in mental hospitals; common drugs were alcohol,
cannabis, opium, chloral hydrate; the outcomes were not favourable; less than
1/3rd of the patients were discharged as improved or recovered.
-Dorothea Dix: improved hospitals and the treatment of their patients: more
biological aspects than psychological, well-being of mental patients; moral
treatment was abandoned
-financial resources limited moral treatment in Canada (Lunatic Asylum in
St. Johns, NF).
-Dr. Stabb was made to take in low-fcning patients deemed untreatable.
-Dorothea Dix: social reformer who lobbied for improvement of the deplorable
treatment of mentally ill ppl; supported the construction of an asylum in St. Johns,
-she presented a compelling memorial prayer on behalf of the mentally ill to
the Nova Scotia legislature and requested construction of a public mental
-Asylums in Canada: Lehman: wrote the first textbook w/afocus on the care/control of mentally ill
pp; in contrast to the compassionate, humane views of reformers such as DorotheaDix & Henry
Hunt Stabb,
-Lehman recommended stringent discipline and harsh treatments, including floggings;
which were not popular or medically supported; harsh.
-Sussman argued that development of services for the mentally ill in Canada/British NA
was largely ad hoc,
-earliest precursor to the 19th C asylums in Canada was the Hotel-Dieu, established in QC
in 1714 by the Duchess dAiguillon; the facility cared for the indigents/crippled ppl as well
as idiots
-both the Chief Asylum & the University Branch were dangerously overcrowded and
lamented the fact that this overcrowding was responsible for the increase in death rate
(mostly women) and for impaired general health of inmates.
-women inmates sent to the University Branch; avg cost of caring for each patient to the
province in 1864 was $152.88; 20% inmates died while in the institution: a large no. Due to
general paresis of the insane and to a condition called phthisis
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