-somatogenesis: Hioppocrates was one of the first to separate medicine from religion, magic and
-such illnesses had natural causes and should be treated like other illnesses.
-somatogenesis – notion that something wrong with the soma, or physical body, disturbs
thought and action.
-psychogenesis – in contrast, believes that a disturbance has psychological origins.
-Hippocrates classified mental disorders into 3 categories: mania, melancholia, and
phrentits (brain fever).
-normal brain functioning/mental health dependent on the balance of 4 humours of the
body: blood/black bile/yellow bile/phlegm: imbalances produced disorders
-sluggish/dull = predominance of phlegm; melancholia = black bile;
irritability/anxiousness = yellow bile; temperament = blood
-dark ages & demonology: death of Galen and the treatment/investigation of abnormal
behaviour; the churches gained influence; replaced physicians with monks to care for the
-persecution of witches: Malleus Maleficarum (the witches’ hammer) to guide the
witch hunts; accused of witchcraft were to be tortured if they did not confess to
-witchcraft and mental illness: psychotic; many of the accused were not mentally ill;
the delusion-like confessions were obtained during brutal tortures.
-witchcrafts was not the primary interpretation of mental illness. Hospitals also
kept the mentally ill
-lunacy trials began: defendants’ orientation, memory, intellect etc were at issue in
-strange have linked to physical illness or injury or to some emotional shock.
-in all the cases, only one referred to demonological possession; mental
disturbance was no as dominant in Middle Ages as one thought.
-development of asylums; mental hospitals; confinement of the mentally ill began in the
15th/16th Centuries; Leprosariums were converted to asylums (also took in beggars).
-bedlam, a popular name for the St. Mary of Bethlehem for just the mentally ill;
describes the place/scene of wild uproar and confusion; became a tourist attraction.
-Benjamin Rush, believe that mental disorder was caused by an XS of blood in the
brain; believed that lunatics could be cured by being frightened.
-moral treatment: Philippe Pinel – mvmt for humanitarian treatment of the
mentally ill in asylums; un-chained them and many became calm and much easier