Textbook Notes (381,165)
CA (168,383)
UTSC (19,323)
Psychology (10,052)
PSYB32H3 (1,181)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 covered in week 4 of FALL 2010 semester

17 Pages
135 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 17 pages of the document.
PSYB32 CHAPTER 4: Clinical Assessment Procedures OCT. 4TH.
2010
-all clinical assessment procedures are more or less formal ways of finding out what is wrong
with a person, what may have caused a problem or problems, and what steps may be taken to
improve the individuals condition
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN ASSESSMENT RELIABILITY:
-in a general sense, reliability refers to consistency of measurement; there are several types of
reliability
inter-rater reliability the relationship between the judgments that at least 2 raters make
independently about a phenomenon
test-rest reliability the relationship between the scores that a person achieves when he/she
takes the same test twice
I.O.W. it measures the extent to which people being observed twice or taking the same test
twice
score in generally the same way
alternate-form reliability the relationship between scores achieved by people when they
complete 2 versions of a test that are judged to be equivalent
I.O.W. this refers to the extent to which scores on the 2 forms of the test are consistent
internal consistency reliability the degree to which different items of an assessment are
related to one another
- in each of these types of reliability, a correlation a measure of how closely 2 variables are
related is calculated between raters or sets of items
- the higher the correlation, the better the reliability
Validity
- validity is generally related to whether a measure fulfills its intended purpose
- validity is related to reliability: unreliable measures will not have good validity
- because an unreliable measure does not yield consistent results, an unreliable measure will not
relate very strongly to other measures
content validity the extent to which a measure adequately samples the domain of interest
- for example an interview used to make an axis I diagnosis has excellent content validity
because it contains questions about all the symptoms that are involved in axis I diagnoses
criterion validity the extent to which a measure is associated in an expected way with some
other measure (the criterion)
- sometimes these relationships may be concurrent (both variables are measured at the same
point in time, and the resulting validity is sometimes referred to as concurrent validity)
- for example, there is a measure of the distorted thoughts believed to play an important role in
depression
- criterion validity for this test could be established by showing that the test is actually related to
depression; that is, depressed people score higher on the test than do non-depressed people
www.notesolution.com
- alternatively, criterion validity can be assessed by evaluating the measures ability to predict
some other variable that is measured in the future; this kind of criterion validity is often called
predictive validity
- for example, IQ tests were originally developed to predict future school performance; similarly a
measure of distorted thinking could be used to predict the development of episodes of depression
in the future
construct validity the extent to which scores or ratings on an assessment instrument relate
to other variables or behaviors according to some theory or hypothesis
- construct validity is relevant when we want to interpret a test as a measure of some
characteristic or construct that isnt simply defined
- a construct is an inferred attribute, such as anxiousness or distorted cognition, that a test is
trying to measure
- consider an anxiety-proneness questionnaire as an example; the construct validity question is
whether the variation we observe between people on a self-report test of anxiety proneness is
really due to individual differences in anxiety proneness
- just because we called our test a of measure anxiety-proneness and the items seem to be about
the tendency to become anxious, it is not certain that the test is a valid measure of anxiety
proneness
- another example; people diagnosed as having an anxiety disorder and people without such a
diagnosis could be compared on their scores on the self-report measure of anxiety-proneness
- the self-report measure would achieve some construct validity if the people with anxiety
disorders scored higher than a control group
- when the self-report measure is associated with the observational one, its construct validity is
increased
- if the measure has construct validity, we would expect scores of patients with anxiety disorders
to become lower after a course of a therapy that is effective in reducing anxiety
Psychological Assessment
- psychological assessment techniques are designed to determine cognitive, emotional,
personality, and behavioral factors in psychopathological functioning
Clinical Interviews
- we interpret the term interview as any interpersonal encounter, conversational in style, in
which one person, the interviewer, uses language as the principal means of finding out about
another, the interviewee
Characteristics of Clinical Interviews
clinical interview a conversation between a clinician and a patient that is aimed at
determining diagnosis, history causes for problems, and possible treatment options
- the paradigm within which an interviewer operates influences the type of information sought,
how it is obtained, and how it is interpreted
www.notesolution.com
- clinicians recognize the importance of establishing a relationship with the client; the
interviewer must obtain the trust of the person so then the person can open up to them more
easily
- most clinicians empathize with their clients in an effort to draw them out, to encourage them to
elaborate on their concerns, and to examine different facets of a problem
- it is important to look at situational factors of the interview that may exert strong influences on
what the patient says or does; for example, if a teen is asked how long have you been smoking
weed?; they would likely be honest to a young, informally dressed psychologist rather than a 60
year old psychologist in a business suit
- interviews vary in the degree to which they are structured
- exactly how information is collected is left largely up to the particular interviewer and depends,
too, on the responsiveness and responses of the interviewee
- to the extent that an interview is structured, the interviewer must rely on intuition and general
experience
- thus, reliability for initial clinical interviews is probably low; that is, 2 interviewers may well
reach different conclusions about the same patient
- both reliability and validity may indeed by low for a single clinical interview that is conducted
in an unstructured fashion; but clinicians usually do more than 1 interview with a given patient,
and hence a self-corrective process is probably at work
Structured Interviews
structured interview an interview in which the questions are set out in a prescribed fashion
for the interviewer; assists professionals in making diagnostic decisions based upon standardized
criteria
- the Structured Clinical Interview Diagnosis (SCID) is a branching interview; that is, the
clients response to one question determines the next question that is asked
- it also contains detailed instructions to the interviewer concerning when and how to probe in
detail and when to go on to questions bearing on another diagnosis
- most symptoms are rated on a 3-point scale of severity, with instructions in the interview
schedule for directly translating the symptom ratings into diagnoses
- the use of structured interviews is a major factor in the improvement of diagnostic reliability
- with adequate training of clinicians, inter-rater reliability for structured interviews is generally
good
Psychological Tests
psychological tests standardized procedures designed to measure a persons performance on
a particular task or to assess his/her personality
- if the results of a diagnostic interview are inconclusive, psychological tests can provide
information that can be used in a supplementary way to arrive at a diagnosis
- psychological tests further structure the process of assessment
- the same test is administered to many people at different times, and the responses are analyzed
to indicate how certain kinds of people tend to respond
standardization the process of constructing an assessment procedure that has norms and
meets the various psychometric criteria for reliability and validity
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
PSYB32 CHAPTER 4: Clinical Assessment Procedures OCT. 4 .H 2010 -all clinical assessment procedures are more or less formal ways of finding out what is wrong with a person, what may have caused a problem or problems, and what steps may be taken to improve the individuals condition RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN ASSESSMENT RELIABILITY: -in a general sense, reliability refers to consistency of measurement; there are several types of reliability inter-rater reliability the relationship between the judgments that at least 2 raters make independently about a phenomenon test-rest reliability the relationship between the scores that a person achieves when heshe takes the same test twice I.O.W. it measures the extent to which people being observed twice or taking the same test twice score in generally the same way alternate-form reliability the relationship between scores achieved by people when they complete 2 versions of a test that are judged to be equivalent I.O.W. this refers to the extent to which scores on the 2 forms of the test are consistent internal consistency reliability the degree to which different items of an assessment are related to one another - in each of these types of reliability, a correlation a measure of how closely 2 variables are related is calculated between raters or sets of items - the higher the correlation, the better the reliability Validity - validity is generally related to whether a measure fulfills its intended purpose - validity is related to reliability: unreliable measures will not have good validity - because an unreliable measure does not yield consistent results, an unreliable measure will not relate very strongly to other measures content validity the extent to which a measure adequately samples the domain of interest - for example an interview used to make an axis I diagnosis has excellent content validity because it contains questions about all the symptoms that are involved in axis I diagnoses criterion validity the extent to which a measure is associated in an expected way with some other measure (the criterion) - sometimes these relationships may be concurrent (both variables are measured at the same point in time, and the resulting validity is sometimes referred to as concurrent validity) - for example, there is a measure of the distorted thoughts believed to play an important role in depression - criterion validity for this test could be established by showing that the test is actually related to depression; that is, depressed people score higher on the test than do non-depressed people www.notesolution.com- alternatively, criterion validity can be assessed by evaluating the measures ability to predict some other variable that is measured in the future; this kind of criterion validity is often called predictive validity - for example, IQ tests were originally developed to predict future school performance; similarly a measure of distorted thinking could be used to predict the development of episodes of depression in the future construct validity the extent to which scores or ratings on an assessment instrument relate to other variables or behaviors according to some theory or hypothesis - construct validity is relevant when we want to interpret a test as a measure of some characteristic or construct that isnt simply defined - a construct is an inferred attribute, such as anxiousness or distorted cognition, that a test is trying to measure - consider an anxiety-proneness questionnaire as an example; the construct validity question is whether the variation we observe between people on a self-report test of anxiety proneness is really due to individual differences in anxiety proneness - just because we called our test a of measure anxiety-proneness and the items seem to be about the tendency to become anxious, it is not certain that the test is a valid measure of anxiety proneness - another example; people diagnosed as having an anxiety disorder and people without such a diagnosis could be compared on their scores on the self-report measure of anxiety-proneness - the self-report measure would achieve some construct validity if the people with anxiety disorders scored higher than a control group - when the self-report measure is associated with the observational one, its construct validity is increased - if the measure has construct validity, we would expect scores of patients with anxiety disorders to become lower after a course of a therapy that is effective in reducing anxiety Psychological Assessment - psychological assessment techniques are designed to determine cognitive, emotional, personality, and behavioral factors in psychopathological functioning Clinical Interviews - we interpret the term interview as any interpersonal encounter, conversational in style, in which one person, the interviewer, uses language as the principal means of finding out about another, the interviewee Characteristics of Clinical Interviews clinical interview a conversation between a clinician and a patient that is aimed at determining diagnosis, history causes for problems, and possible treatment options - the paradigm within which an interviewer operates influences the type of information sought, how it is obtained, and how it is interpreted www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit