PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor, Substance Intoxication, Coronary Artery Disease

12 views13 pages
Published on 11 Aug 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Chapter 12-Substance Related Disorders
Substance dependence is characterized by at least THREE of the following:
o Toleranceindicated by a larger does needed to produce an effect or the effects
become less if the usual amount is taken
o Withdrawalnegative physical and psychological effects if the person stops
taking the substance
o The person uses more of the substance or for longer periods
o Tries to reduce usage but is unable to do so
o Much of the time is spent trying to obtain or recover from the substance
o Substance use continues despite physical or psychological problems
o Cut back in many activities
Substance dependence is diagnosed with physiological dependence if tolerance OR
withdrawal is presentmore severe
The less severe substance abuse the person must experience ONE of the following:
o Failure to fulfil obligations
o Exposure to physical dangers
o Legal problems
o Social or interpersonal problems
Substance intoxication is when a substance effects the CNS and creates maladaptive
behavioural or cognitive effects
Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
The term abuse refers to excessive and harmful aspects of alcohol
A person with alcohol dependence may experience tolerance or withdrawal
The person become anxious, restless, and tremors of muscles with higher blood
pressure
In rare cases a person may experience delirium tremensperson has hallucinations that
are primarily visual
Alcohol in the blood of people who have built a tolerance is very low because the body
adapts the drug and processes it better
Tolerance may be due to the number or sensitivity changes of GABA or glutamate
receptors. Withdrawal may be the result of the ending of inhibitory effects of alcohol
resulting in a state of overexitation
Alcoholics may eventually suffer memory loss and blackouts during events
A person who abuses alcohol shows impairment in social or occupation aspects but does
not show tolerance or withdrawal
Polydrug abuse is using more than one drug at a time
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 13 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o 85% of people who drink smoke as well
o Nicotine can induce a tolerance for the effects of alchohol and vice versa
Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse and Comorbidity with Other Disorders
Alcohol abuse common among Native Americans
Problem drinking comorbid with mood and personality disorders
Binge Drinking at Universitites, Colleges, and Schools
1 out of 6 met criteria for heavy drinking
Students living at home were less likely to be heavy drinkers
Greater proportion of Canadian students drink but heavy alcohol use is higher with
American students
Single parents, parents from blended families and higher achieving parents were more
clued in about their children’s illicit drug use
Being male, living or residence, and having a high recreational orientation and low
education orientation increased the likelihood of being a heavy drinker
Course of the Disorder
There is no single pattern of alcohol abuse
Difficulties with alcohol begin later in women than men and usually after a stressful
experience
o Alcohol abuse is briefer, and they then to be steady drinkers that drink alone and
less likely to binge
Costs of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
Fourth cause of worldwide disability
The typical drinking and driver is between 25 and 34
A large portion of drinking drivers engage in anti social acts
Short Term Effects of Alcohol
Is metabolized by enzymes and is absorbed into blood in the small intestines
It is then broken down in the liver which can metabolize 30 ml of 50% alcohol an hour
Absorption is rapid, removal is slow
The effects of alcohol vary with concentration in bloodstream, which depends on
amount ingested, the presence of food in the stomach (to reduce it absorption rate) and
the size of a persons body and liver
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 13 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
The effects of alcohol is biphasicthe initial effect is stimulating (sociability, feels good)
when the blood alcohol level rises but as blood alcohol levels begins to drop it acts as a
depressant and leads to negative emotions
Alcohol stimulates GABA receptors used to alleviate tension and increases levels of
serotonin and dopamine
Alcohol also inhibits glutamate receptors causing cognitive effects such as memory loss
and slurred speech
Some short term effects of alcohol are strongly linked to the drinkers expectations
(placebo)
o Example: it increases sexual arousal (in reality it actually impedes it)
Long Term Effects of Prolonged Alcohol Abuse
Heavy drinkers reduce food intake because alcohol provides many empty calories
Alcohol contributes to malnutrition by impairing the digestion of food and absorption of
vitamins
Memory gaps are common with people filling in imaginary things
Prolonged alcohol use destroys the liver
There is also risk of stroke, damage of endocrine glands and pancreas and capillary
hemorrages responsible for swelling in the face (especially nose)
There is also lose of grey matter in temporal lobes
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndromethe growth
of the fetus is slowed resulting in abnormalities
Most pregnant women drink not knowing they are pregnant due to half of pregnancies
are unplanned
Light drinking of wine can result in decreased risk of coronary heart disease
The French paradox: despite diets rich in fats, they have low cholesterol, some
hypothesize wine is the result of this
Inhalant Use Disorders
Especially prevalent in Native children
Most act as depressants such as alcohol
Nicotine and Cigarette Smoking
Nicotine is the addicting agent of tobacco and stimulates nicotinic receptors in the brain
that stimulate dopamine neurons in the mesolimbic area
Addiction starts shortly after the first puff
Female smokers have greater changes in cognitive activity after nicotine exposure
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 13 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Substance dependence is diagnosed with physiological dependence if tolerance or withdrawal is present more severe. The less severe substance abuse the person must experience one of the following: failure to fulfil obligations, exposure to physical dangers, legal problems, social or interpersonal problems. Substance intoxication is when a substance effects the cns and creates maladaptive behavioural or cognitive effects. The term abuse refers to excessive and harmful aspects of alcohol. A person with alcohol dependence may experience tolerance or withdrawal. The person become anxious, restless, and tremors of muscles with higher blood pressure. In rare cases a person may experience delirium tremens person has hallucinations that are primarily visual. Alcohol in the blood of people who have built a tolerance is very low because the body adapts the drug and processes it better. Tolerance may be due to the number or sensitivity changes of gaba or glutamate receptors.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.