PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Visual Acuity, Depth Perception, Subjective Constancy

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Published on 11 Oct 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
PSYB20
Chapter 4 Infancy: Sensation, Perception, and learning
THE NEWBORN
- Neonates: a new born baby
- They have reflexes: involuntary responses to
external stimulation
- They also have infant state: a recurring pattern
of arousal. Ranges from alert, vigorous, wakeful
activity, to quite regular sleep.
- Sleep: newborn sleeps 70% of the time, but by 8
weeks old, she sleeps more at night
o REM sleep: rapid-eye-movement dream
o Lack of REM sleep leads to irritable and
disorganized people
o Infants sleep is 50% REM, adult is 20%
o Anti-stimulatory theory: a theory that
during REM sleep, the infant’s brain
stimulates itself and that this, in turn,
stimulates early development of CNS
- Crying: earliest means of communication
o Three patters of crying
1. Basic: linked to hunger, gradual crying...
2. Angry: removal of toy... like basic...
3. Pain: sudden crying
o Colic: a prolonged period of
unexplained crying in an infant
- How to soothe an infant
o Very young infants have some
techniques to soothe them-selves ex.
sucking
o Soothing babies in order to help them
reach a state in which they are not too
drowsy or upset is one critical task of
parenting. Ex. rocking, swaddling,
massaging
o Swaddling: wrapping baby in blanket
and keeping the arms and legs
immobile
- Evaluating the newborns health and
capabilities:
o Tests of babies reflexes
o Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale:
measures infant’s sensory and
perceptual capabilities, motor
development, and range of states.
Box4.2 How culture affects crying and soothability:
- There is a “normal” crying curve that regulates
the amount of infant crying
- Infants crying gradually ↑’s over the first 2
months of life, then ’s till the 4th month
- There is a cross cultural difference with infants’
duration of crying
o !Kung San infants cry for about half the
time of the Western babies
- There are also cross cultural differences with
infants soothability
o European-American babies in the US
shifted more frequently b/w states of
contentment and distress
o Chinese-American babies in US tended
to calm themselves more readily and
were also more easily consoled
THE INFANT’S SENSORY AND PERCEPTUAL CAPACITIES
- Sensation: the detection of stimuli by the
sensory receptors
- Perceptions: the interpretations of sensations
in order to make them meaningful
- The infants sensory and perceptual abilities are
very sensitive to the social environment
- So, they may be biologically prepared to
respond to the social environment
- A variety of techniques are used to study their
sensory capabilities
o Relying on information from the
autonomic NS
o Violation-of-expectation method:
introducing an unusual or impossible
sight and monitoring for any Δ in the
infants behaviour
o Visual preference method: measuring
the length of time infants spend
attending to different stimuli to study
their ability to distinguish b/w stimuli
o Habituation: the process by which an
individual reacts with less and less
intensity to repeatedly presented
stimuli, eventually not responding at all
this method can be used to
study the baby’s ability to
distinguish stimuli
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Document Summary

Chapter 4 infancy: sensation, perception, and learning. They have reflexes: involuntary responses to external stimulation. They also have infant state: a recurring pattern of arousal. Ranges from alert, vigorous, wakeful activity, to quite regular sleep. Sleep: newborn sleeps 70% of the time, but by 8 weeks old, she sleeps more at night: rem sleep: rapid-eye-movement dream, lack of rem sleep leads to irritable and disorganized people. Infants sleep is 50% rem, adult is 20: anti-stimulatory theory: a theory that during rem sleep, the infant"s brain stimulates itself and that this, in turn, stimulates early development of cns. Crying: earliest means of communication: three patters of crying, basic: linked to hunger, gradual crying, angry: removal of toy like basic, pain: sudden crying, colic: a prolonged period of unexplained crying in an infant. There is a normal crying curve that regulates the amount of infant crying.

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