PSYB32H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Nitrogenous Base, Monosaccharide, Sickle-Cell Disease

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Published on 13 Oct 2012
Child Psychology Chapter 2 Review:
1. What is active genetic-environmental interaction?
o Active genetic-environmental interaction is a kind of interaction in which
people’s genes encourage them to seek out experience compatible with their
inherited tendencies
2. What is a passive genetic-environmental interaction?
o A passive genetic-environmental interaction is the interactive environment
created by parents with particular genetic predispositions who encourage the
expression of these tendencies in their children
3. What are evocative influences?
o Evocative influences are when inherited tendencies evoke certain responses
from others, thus shaping their social environment
4. What is an evocative genetic-environmental interaction?
o Evocative genetic-environmental interaction is the expression of the gene’s
influence on the environment through an individual’s inherited tendencies to
evoke certain environmental responses
5. What is a gene?
o A gene is a portion of DNA that is located at a particular site on a chromosome
and that codes for the production of certain kinds of proteins
6. What is an allele?
o An allele is an alternative form of a gene; typically, a gene has two alleles, one
inherited from the individual’s mother and one from the father
7. What is co-dominance?
o Co-dominance is a genetic pattern in which heterozygous alleles express the
variant of the trait for which they code simultaneously and with equal force
8. What is chorionic villus sampling?
o Chorionic villi sampling is a technique for sampling and assessing cells
withdrawn from the chorionic villi, which are projections from the chorion that
surrounds the amniotic sac; cells are withdrawn either through a tube inserted
into the uterus through the vagina or through a needle inserted through the
abdominal wall
9. What is alphafetoprotein assay (AFP)?
o AFP is a blood test performed prenatally to detect such problems as Down
syndrome, the presence of multiple embryos, and defects of the CNS
10. What is aminocentesis?
o Aminocentesis is a technique for sampling and assessing fetal cells for
indications of abnormalities in the developing fetus; performed by inserting a
needle through the abdominal wall and into the amniotic sac and withdrawing
a small amount of the amniotic fluid.
11. What are chromosomes?
o Chromosomes are thread-like structures, located in the central portion, or
nucleus, of a cell, that carry genetic information to help direct development
12. What are autosomes?
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o Autosomes are the 22 paired non-sex chromosomes in males and females that
determine the development of most body structures and attributes
13. What is crossing over?
o Crossing over is the process by which equivalent sections of homologous
chromosomes switch places randomly, shuffling the genetic information each
14. What is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)?
o DNA is a ladder-like molecule that stores genetic information in cell and
transmits it during reproduction
15. What is canalization?
o Canalization is the genetic restriction of a phenotype to a small number of
developmental outcomes, permitting environmental influences to play only a
small role in these outcomes
16. What is monozygotic?
o Monozygotic is characterizing identical twins, who have developed from a
single fertilized egg
17. What is dizygotic?
o Dizygotic is characterizing fraternal twins, who have developed from two
separate fertilized eggs
18. What is dominant?
o Dominant is describing the more powerful of two alleles in a heterozygous
19. What is Down syndrome?
o Down syndrome is a form of chromosome abnormality, in which the person
suffers disabling physical and mental development and is highly susceptible to
such illnesses as leukemia, heart disorders, and respiratory infections
20. What is the fragile X syndrome?
o Fragile X syndrome is a form of chromosome abnormality, more common in
males than in females, in which an X chromosome is narrowed in some areas,
causing it to be fragile and leading to a variety of physical, psychological, and
social problems
21. What is a genotype?
o A genotype is a particular set of genes that a person inherits from her parents
22. What is goodness of fit?
o Goodness of fit is a measure of the degree to which a child’s temperament is
matched by her environment. The more effectively parents and other agents of
socialization accept and adapt to the child’s unique temperament, the better
this “fit”
23. What is hemophilia?
o Hemophilia is a disorder caused by an X-linked recessive gene, in which the
blood fails to clot; found more often in males than in females
24. What are heritability factors?
o Heritability factors are a statistical estimate of the contribution made by
heredity to a particular trait or ability
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