Textbook Notes (378,525)
CA (167,148)
UTSC (19,212)
Psychology (9,983)
PSYB32H3 (1,181)
Chapter 14

chapter 14

23 Pages
152 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 23 pages of the document.
1
Chapter 14: Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders
When fantasies or desires begin to affect us or others in unwanted or harmful ways, they qualify as
abnormal
Human sexual thoughts, feelings and actions that are regarded as abnormal and dysfunctional are
listed in DSM-IV-TR as sexual and gender identity disorders (people who believe they are of the
opposite sex)
Paraphilias: people are attracted to unusual sexual activities or objects
Rape is not part of the DSM listing
Sexual dysfunction is the disruption in normal sexual functioning found in many people who are in
otherwise reasonably sound psychological health
Gender Identity Disorder
Our gender identity is our sense of ourselves as male or female
Sexual identity or sexual orientation is the preference we have for the sex of a partner
Characteristic of GID
Also referred to as transsexualism: feel deep within themselves, usually from early childhood, that
they are of the opposite sex
Have an aversion to same-sex clothing and activities
They have normal genitals and usually secondary sex characteristics (beard growth for men and
breasts for women); this does not persuade them that they are what others see them to be
They might look in the mirror and see a biological man or women but may personally experience that
the body belongs to the opposite sex; they may try to pass as a member of the opposite sex and even
want body surgically altered to bring it in life with their gender identity
Most GID cases are specified as GIDNOS; person may have symptoms that meet such of the
description of GID but there are some unique features that do not fit the precise criteria of GID
oWhen GID is not differentiated from transvestic fetishism; they often dress in clothing typical of the
opposite sex, but transvestites do not identify themselves as of the opposite sex
When GID begins in childhood it is associated with cross-gender behaviour such as dressing in the
opposite sex clothes, preferring opposite sex playmates and engaging in play that would usually be
considered more typical of the opposite sex
GID is associated with a developmental lag in achieving a sense of gender constancy or stability (i.e.
acceptance that one is a boy or girl for life)
GID in child is usually recognized by child at the age b/w 2-4 years
It is 6.6 times more common in boys than girls and this is a result of social factors; cross gender
behaviour is less tolerated when exhibited by boys and a higher threshold has to be met in order for a
girl to be referred
Zuckers chart review had several factors associated with the decision to seek a clinical assessment
www.notesolution.com
2
oA belief that the behaviour was no longer a phase that the child would grow out of
oA threshold violation
oBelief that the child was experiencing intense distress about being a boy or a girl
oConcerns about potential or actual rejection by peersstrongest predictor of behaviour problems
Most children with GID do not grow up to be disordered in adulthood, even w/o professional
interventionmany show a homosexual orientation
Excluded from GIF are people with schizophrenia and hermaphrodites (intersexed individuals
who have both male and female reproductive organs)
Male with GID experiences his sexual interest in men as a conventional heterosexual
preference because he considers himself a women
Those with GID often arouse disapproval of others and experience discrimination in
employment when they choose to cross dress
People with GID often experience anxiety and depression not surprising given their
psychological predicament and negative attitudes most people have towards them
GID in childhood is linked with separation anxiety disorder
Prevalence rates for GID are slight: 1 in 30 000 men and 1 in 100 000 to 150 000 women
Causes of GID
Bartlett concluded that children who experience a sense of inappropriateness in the culturally
prescribed gender role of their sex but who do not experience discomfort with their biological
sex should not be considered to have GID
Some suggest that GID in children should be removed from the DSM because it may
contribute to labelling process that stigmatizes those children with GID who go on to develop
Patterns of GID can come from physical disturbance
Gender identity is influenced by hormones in an experiment the participants were unable to
produce hormones that shape the penis and scrotum in males during fetal development- born
with small penises that looked like labial folds2/3 of them raised as girls but at puberty their
testosterone levels increased and their sex organs changed (penis enlarged and testicles
described into the scrotum) 17 of the 18 participants developed a male gender identity
Castration is the construction of female genitals and later treatment with sex hormones
Reassigned female gender identity is evident despite the presence of masculine tendencies
(nurture) ; and in other cases it doesnt work because of perhaps a biological cause (nature)
Humans and other primate offspring of mothers who have taken sex hormones during
pregnancy frequently behave like members of the opposite sex and have anatomical
abnormalities; the children were not necessarily abnormal in their gender identity, but the
mothers ingestion of prenatal sex hormones did apparently give them higher than usual
oProgestin: girl more tomboyish
oFemale hormones: boy more girly
www.notesolution.com
3
There are few differences in hormones levels among men with GID , male heterosexuals and
male homosexuals
Some women with GID had elevated levels of male hormones, but others did not
oThese differences are difficult to interpret because many GID patients use sex hormones in an
effort to alter their bodies according to their wishes
Research on chromosomal abnormalities is less conclusive than hormonal abnormalities;
efforts to find difference in brain structures b/w transsexuals and control group subjects have
been negative
Environment can also play a role; many young children engage in cross-gendered behaviour
now and then and in some homes this may be reinforced by parents or relatives; this
contributes in a major way to conflict b/w their anatomical sex and acquired gender identity
Childs attractiveness is a factor that may contribute to this pattern of parental behaviour;
boys with GID have been rated more attractive than control children and girls with GID as less
attractive
Male patients with GID report have distant relationship with their fathers; females report
history of physical and sexual abuse
Feminine behaviour in boys is encouraged by mothers who prior to childs birth wanted very
much to have a girl
GID is far less prevalent than would be indicated by number of boys how play with dolls an
girls who engage in contact sports
Therapies for GID: attempt to alter body to suit psychology and other is designed to alter
psychology to match the body
1)Body alterations:
Have to undergo 6-12 months of psychotherapy; it focuses not only on anxiety and
depression that the person has been likely experiencing but also available options for altering
his or her body
Some people may choose to have only cosmetic surgery; a male to female transsexual may
have electrolysis to remove facial hair and surgery to reduce the size of the chin and Adams
apple
Many take hormones to bring their bodies physically close to their beliefs about their gender
Many do not go further than this but some take next step of having sex-reassignment surgery
which is an operation in which existing genitalia are altered to make them more like those of
the opposite sex; surgery is done by men more than women
oThere was no advantage to the individuals in terms of social rehab
oOverall improvement in social adaptation rates because of the surgery with female to male
transsexuals having greater success than male to female transsexuals
oPreoperative factors that seemed to predict favourable post-surgery adjustments were (1)
reasonable emotional stability (2) successful adaptation in the new role for at least one year
b4 the surgery (3) adequate understanding of the actual limitations and consequences of the
surgery (4) psychotherapy in the context of an established gender identity program
oSexual responsiveness and sexual satisfaction increase dramatically in both male to female
and female to male transsexuals with an overall high level of satisfaction with results of the
surgery patients point at the importance of postoperative psychotherapy in helping them
with the adjustment
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
1 Chapter 14: Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders When fantasies or desires begin to affect us or others in unwanted or harmful ways, they qualify as abnormal Human sexual thoughts, feelings and actions that are regarded as abnormal and dysfunctional are listed in DSM-IV-TR as sexual and gender identity disorders (people who believe they are of the opposite sex) Paraphilias: people are attracted to unusual sexual activities or objects Rape is not part of the DSM listing Sexual dysfunction is the disruption in normal sexual functioning found in many people who are in otherwise reasonably sound psychological health Gender Identity Disorder Our gender identity is our sense of ourselves as male or female Sexual identity or sexual orientation is the preference we have for the sex of a partner Characteristic of GID Also referred to as transsexualism: feel deep within themselves, usually from early childhood, that they are of the opposite sex Have an aversion to same-sex clothing and activities They have normal genitals and usually secondary sex characteristics (beard growth for men and breasts for women); this does not persuade them that they are what others see them to be They might look in the mirror and see a biological man or women but may personally experience that the body belongs to the opposite sex; they may try to pass as a member of the opposite sex and even want body surgically altered to bring it in life with their gender identity Most GID cases are specified as GIDNOS; person may have symptoms that meet such of the description of GID but there are some unique features that do not fit the precise criteria of GID o When GID is not differentiated from transvestic fetishism; they often dress in clothing typical of the opposite sex, but transvestites do not identify themselves as of the opposite sex When GID begins in childhood it is associated with cross-gender behaviour such as dressing in the opposite sex clothes, preferring opposite sex playmates and engaging in play that would usually be considered more typical of the opposite sex GID is associated with a developmental lag in achieving a sense of gender constancy or stability (i.e. acceptance that one is a boy or girl for life) GID in child is usually recognized by child at the age bw 2-4 years It is 6.6 times more common in boys than girls and this is a result of social factors; cross gender behaviour is less tolerated when exhibited by boys and a higher threshold has to be met in order for a girl to be referred Zuckers chart review had several factors associated with the decision to seek a clinical assessment www.notesolution.com2 o A belief that the behaviour was no longer a phase that the child would grow out of o A threshold violation o Belief that the child was experiencing intense distress about being a boy or a girl o Concerns about potential or actual rejection by peersstrongest predictor of behaviour problems Most children with GID do not grow up to be disordered in adulthood, even wo professional interventionmany show a homosexual orientation Excluded from GIF are people with schizophrenia and hermaphrodites (intersexed individuals who have both male and female reproductive organs) Male with GID experiences his sexual interest in men as a conventional heterosexual preference because he considers himself a women Those with GID often arouse disapproval of others and experience discrimination in employment when they choose to cross dress People with GID often experience anxiety and depression not surprising given their psychological predicament and negative attitudes most people have towards them GID in childhood is linked with separation anxiety disorder Prevalence rates for GID are slight: 1 in 30 000 men and 1 in 100 000 to 150 000 women Causes of GID Bartlett concluded that children who experience a sense of inappropriateness in the culturally prescribed gender role of their sex but who do not experience discomfort with their biological sex should not be considered to have GID Some suggest that GID in children should be removed from the DSM because it may contribute to labelling process that stigmatizes those children with GID who go on to develop Patterns of GID can come from physical disturbance Gender identity is influenced by hormones in an experiment the participants were unable to produce hormones that shape the penis and scrotum in males during fetal development- born with small penises that looked like labial folds23 of them raised as girls but at puberty their testosterone levels increased and their sex organs changed (penis enlarged and testicles described into the scrotum) 17 of the 18 participants developed a male gender identity Castration is the construction of female genitals and later treatment with sex hormones Reassigned female gender identity is evident despite the presence of masculine tendencies (nurture) ; and in other cases it doesnt work because of perhaps a biological cause (nature) Humans and other primate offspring of mothers who have taken sex hormones during pregnancy frequently behave like members of the opposite sex and have anatomical abnormalities; the children were not necessarily abnormal in their gender identity, but the mothers ingestion of prenatal sex hormones did apparently give them higher than usual o Progestin: girl more tomboyish o Female hormones: boy more girly www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit