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Chapter 6

Behaviour Modficiation - Chapter 6 Book Notes

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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6
Punishment
Punishment: a person engaged in a behaviour and there was an immediate consequence that made it less
likely that the person would repeat the behaviour in similar situations in the future
A punisher (also called an aversive stimulus) is a consequence that makes a particular behaviour
less likely to occur in the future
A stimulus event is a punisher when it decreases the frequency of the behaviour it follows
Scolding and spanking do not function as punishers
This is an example of positive reinforcement childs behaviour (hitting his sisters) results in the
presentation of a consequence (scolding and spanking by his mother and crying by his sisters),
and the outcome is that the child continues to engage in the behaviour day after day
Punishment cannot be defined by whether the consequences appears unfavourable or aversive
Some parents continue to scold or spank their children because it puts an immediate stop to the
problem behaviour, even though their scolding and spanking do not make the childs problem
behaviour, but does not make the childs problem behaviour less likely to occur in the future
The parents behaviour of scolding or spanking is negatively reinforced, so the parents continue to
spank or scold in the future when the child misbehaves
A particular consequence is punishing only if the behaviour decreases in the future
ExampleCarlton was riding his bike and looking down at the ground as he pedaled. All of a sudden, he
ran into the back of a parked car, flew off the bike, and hit the roof of the car with his face. He knocked
his front tooth lose. In the future, Ed was much less likely to look down at the ground when he rode his
bike
Punishment involves hope that the behaviour will stop, but also elements of retribution or retaliation; part
of the intent is to hurt the person who has committed the crime
The everyday meaning of punishment is different from the technical definition of punishment
used in behaviour modification
A common misconception is that the technical definition is associated with wrong or dangerous
www.notesolution.com
6
Positive and Negative Punishment
The difference between positive and negative punishment is determined by the consequences of the
behaviour. Should not be confused with reinforcement, whereas reinforcement strengthens a behaviour
making it more likely to occur in the future, whereas punishment weakens a behaviour
Positive punishment: the occurrence of a behaviour, followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus;
thus, the behaviour is less likely to occur in the future
ExampleRumination in infants can result in dehydration, malnutrition, or death. Each time the
infant engaged in rumination, the researchers squirted a small amount of lemon juice. Thus, the
rumination behaviour immediately decreased
One other form is based on the Premack principle: when a person is made to engage in a low-probability
behaviour contingent on a high-probability behaviour, the high-probability behaviour will decrease in
frequency
After engaging in a problem behaviour, a person has to do something he or she does not want to
do
Thus, the person will be less likely to engage in the problem behaviour in the future
Standing up and sitting down on the floor ten times in a row (an example of contingent exercise)
resulted in an immediate decrease in aggressive behaviour
Extinction takes longer for the behaviour to decrease, and an extinction burst often occurs before
the behaviour decrease
With punishment, there is no extinction burst but do have other side effects
Negative punishment: the occurrence of behaviour, followed by the removal of a reinforcing stimulus;
thus, the behaviour is less likely to occur in the future
Two examples include time-out from positive reinforcement and response cost
Both involve the loss of reinforcing stimulus or activity
Should not be confused with extinction, although both weaken behaviour
John interrupts his parents and the behaviour is reinforced by his parents attention. They scold
him each time he interrupts. Extinction would involve withholding the parents attention each
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Description
6 Punishment Punishment: a person engaged in a behaviour and there was an immediate consequence that made it less likely that the person would repeat the behaviour in similar situations in the future A punisher (also called an aversive stimulus) is a consequence that makes a particular behaviour less likely to occur in the future A stimulus event is a punisher when it decreases the frequency of the behaviour it follows Scolding and spanking do not function as punishers This is an example of positive reinforcement childs behaviour (hitting his sisters) results in the presentation of a consequence (scolding and spanking by his mother and crying by his sisters), and the outcome is that the child continues to engage in the behaviour day after day Punishment cannot be defined by whether the consequences appears unfavourable or aversive Some parents continue to scold or spank their children because it puts an immediate stop to the problem behaviour, even though their scolding and spanking do not make the childs problem behaviour, but does not make the childs problem behaviour less likely to occur in the future The parents behaviour of scolding or spanking is negatively reinforced, so the parents continue to spank or scold in the future when the child misbehaves A particular consequence is punishing only if the behaviour decreases in the future Example Carlton was riding his bike and looking down at the ground as he pedaled. All of a sudden, he ran into the back of a parked car, flew off the bike, and hit the roof of the car with his face. He knocked his front tooth lose. In the future, Ed was much less likely to look down at the ground when he rode his bike Punishment involves hope that the behaviour will stop, but also elements of retribution or retaliation; part of the intent is to hurt the person who has committed the crime The everyday meaning of punishment is different from the technical definition of punishment used in behaviour modification A common misconception is that the technical definition is associated with wrong or dangerous www.notesolution.com
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