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Chapter 8

Behaviour Modficiation - Chapter 8 Book Notes

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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8
Respondent Conditioning
Respondent behaviours are controlled by antecedent stimuli, and respondent conditioning involves the
manipulation of antecedent stimuli
Defining Respondent Conditioning
Certain types of stimuli elicit specific types of bodily responses, such as the pupil of the eye constricts on
exposure to bright light
These are called unconditioned responses (URs): are elicited by antecedent stimuli even though
no conditioning or learning has occurred
A UR occurs in all healthy people when an unconditioned stimulus (US) is present
Humans have evolved to respond to USs because the URs have survival value
A UR is a natural reflexive action of the body that occurs when a US is present
Respondent conditioning occurs when a previously neural (NS) is paired with a US
The NS and US are presently together
Thus, the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and elicits a conditioned response (CR)
similar to the CR
A UR or CR is called a respondent behaviour
Respondent conditioning is also called classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning. Pavlov presented
the sound of the metronome and the meat powder together many times. After this, he presented the sound
of the metronome by itself. The dog now salivated to the sound of the metronome without the meant
powder in its mouth. The sound become a CS because it was paired a number of times with the meant
powder
Timing of the Neutral Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus
The US should occur immediately after the onset of the NS
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8
Trace and delay conditioning are the most effective, while backward conditioning is the least effective
Trace conditioning: the NS precedes the US, but the NS ends before the US is presented
Example – you present the clicking sound and, after the clicking sound has stopped, you present the puff
of air
Delay conditioning: the NS is presented and then the US is presented before the NS ends
Example occurs if a clicking sound is presented and a puff of air is presented before the clicking sound
has terminated
Simultaneous conditioning: the NS and US are presented at the same time
Backward conditioning: the US is presented before the NS
Example the puff of air is directed at the eye and then the clicking sound occurs; unlikely that the sound
will elicit an eye blink response
The only case in which respondent conditioning can occur without close temporal proximity is taste
aversion
Mark drank a glass of spoiled bad that tasted normal. He experiences nausea and vomiting 15
minutes after he drank it
Since this incident, milk does not taste good to him
The tainted milk in his stomach was a US and the UR was nausea and vomiting
Since the US was paired with the taste of milk, the taste of milk becomes a CS that elicited a CR
similar to the nausea
He might not actually get sick when drinking milk again, but the milk does not taste good and
produces mild nausea
This type of respondent condition is called taste aversion
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8
High-order conditioning: occurs when a NS is paired with an already-established CS and the NS becomes
a CS
Once the clicking sound was paired with a blast of air many times, the clicking sound became a
CS for eye blink response
If another NS is paired with the clicking sound, it can become a CS also
If a light flashed each time the clicking sound was made, the light becomes a Cs and would elicit
blinking even when the clicking sound is absent
This conditioning depends on how well established the CS is when it is paired with the NS
Conditioned emotional responses (CERs): proposed by Watson and Rayner who used respondent
conditioning procedures to condition a fear response in a young child
The child was not afraid of a rat (a NS)
The rat was presented to the child and the researchers immediately hit a metal bar with a hammer
The loud noise was the US that elicited a startle response (UR)
The presence of the rat and the loud noise was paired many times, causing the rat to become a CS
Also involved operant conditioning, where the rat became a conditioned punisher because it was
associated with the loud noise
The behaviour of crawling away from the rat was strengthened through negative reinforcement
(escape)
The process of respondent conditioning can develop CSs for positive or negative (undesirable) CERS
Examplewhen a man smells the perfume worn by his girlfriend, it elicits a positive emotional
response
The interactions and physical contact with his girlfriend would be the US eliciting the positive
emotional response
The perfume is the CS because it is paired with the US
Thus, when his girlfriend is not present, the smell can elicit the same feelings (positive CER)
www.notesolution.com

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Description
8 Respondent Conditioning Respondent behaviours are controlled by antecedent stimuli, and respondent conditioning involves the manipulation of antecedent stimuli Defining Respondent Conditioning Certain types of stimuli elicit specific types of bodily responses, such as the pupil of the eye constricts on exposure to bright light These are called unconditioned responses (URs): are elicited by antecedent stimuli even though no conditioning or learning has occurred A UR occurs in all healthy people when an unconditioned stimulus (US) is present Humans have evolved to respond to USs because the URs have survival value A UR is a natural reflexive action of the body that occurs when a US is present Respondent conditioning occurs when a previously neural (NS) is paired with a US The NS and US are presently together Thus, the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and elicits a conditioned response (CR) similar to the CR A UR or CR is called a respondent behaviour Respondent conditioning is also called classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning. Pavlov presented the sound of the metronome and the meat powder together many times. After this, he presented the sound of the metronome by itself. The dog now salivated to the sound of the metronome without the meant powder in its mouth. The sound become a CS because it was paired a number of times with the meant powder Timing of the Neutral Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus The US should occur immediately after the onset of the NS www.notesolution.com
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