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Chapter 9

Behaviour Modficiation - Chapter 9 Book Notes

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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9
Shaping
Shaping: is used to develop a target behavior that a person does not currently exhibit
Defined as differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior until the
individual exhibits the target behavior
Differential reinforcement involves the basic principles of reinforcement and extinction
Occurs when one particular behavior is reinforced and all other behaviors are not reinforced in a
particular situation
Thus, the behavior that is reinforced increases and the behaviors that are not reinforced decrease
through extinction
When shaping is used to develop language, the successive approximations or shaping steps include
babbling, word sounds, part words, whole words, string of words, and sentences
To start shaping, you identify and existing behavior that is an approximation of the target
behavior. This is called the starting behavior, or first approximation
You reinforce this behavior causing the individual to exhibit this behavior more often
You then stop reinforcing and, as part of the subsequent extinction burst, novel behaviors begin to
appear
Now you reinforce a novel behavior that is a closer approximation to the target behavior
The process of differential reinforcement (reinforcement of a closer approximation and extinction
of a previous approximation) continues until the individual exhibits the target behaviors
How do dolphins perform tricks?
Trainers can shape complex behaviors by starting with natural behaviors that occur often
Trainers make the clicking sound each time, they dolphin receive a fish to eat as a reinforce
Since the clicking sound is paired with this unconditioned reinforcer, it becomes a conditioned
reinforcer
Timing is very important. The reinforcer must be deliver at the exact instant that the correct
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9
approximation occurs
Or else, you might accidently reinforce a different behavior
The conditioned reinforcer is used so that the dolphins do not become satiated with fish
Shaping can be used in the following ways:
1. Generating a novel behavior
Ex- language in a young child, lever-pressing in rats, and tricks from the dolphin
2. Reinstating a previously exhibited behavior
Ex - Walking independently after a high replacement surgery
3. Changing some dimension of an existing behavior
Ex - Increasing the time between bathroom visits, so that daily bathroom visits decreases
Research on Shaping
Shaping has been used to generate many target behaviors in a variety of population including high-level
athletic performance, therapeutic exercise for headache control, toileting for infants, compliance with
medical intervention by individuals with mental retardation, and the use of contact lenses
Shaping of different topographies (new forms) of behaviors has been reported. Shaping was used to get a
preschooler with disabilities to wear his glasses. Food was the reinforcer which was used
How to Use Shaping
Shaping is used when the target behavior does not yet exist
1. Define the target behavior
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Description
9 Shaping Shaping: is used to develop a target behavior that a person does not currently exhibit Defined as differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior until the individual exhibits the target behavior Differential reinforcement involves the basic principles of reinforcement and extinction Occurs when one particular behavior is reinforced and all other behaviors are not reinforced in a particular situation Thus, the behavior that is reinforced increases and the behaviors that are not reinforced decrease through extinction When shaping is used to develop language, the successive approximations or shaping steps include babbling, word sounds, part words, whole words, string of words, and sentences To start shaping, you identify and existing behavior that is an approximation of the target behavior. This is called the starting behavior, or first approximation You reinforce this behavior causing the individual to exhibit this behavior more often You then stop reinforcing and, as part of the subsequent extinction burst, novel behaviors begin to appear Now you reinforce a novel behavior that is a closer approximation to the target behavior The process of differential reinforcement (reinforcement of a closer approximation and extinction of a previous approximation) continues until the individual exhibits the target behaviors How do dolphins perform tricks? Trainers can shape complex behaviors by starting with natural behaviors that occur often Trainers make the clicking sound each time, they dolphin receive a fish to eat as a reinforce Since the clicking sound is paired with this unconditioned reinforcer, it becomes a conditioned reinforcer Timing is very important. The reinforcer must be deliver at the exact instant that the correct www.notesolution.com
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