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Chapter 10

Behaviour Modficiation - Chapter 10 Book Notes

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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10
Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control
Prompts: are used to increase the likelihood that a person will engage in the correct behavior at the correct
time
Used during discrimination training to help the person engage in the correct behavior in the
presence of SD
Are an antecedent stimuli given before or during performance of a behavior
Function of prompts is to produce an instance of the correct behavior so that is can be reinforced
The teacher provides supplemental stimuli (prompts) with the SD so that the student will perform
the correct behavior
The teacher then reinforces the correct behavior so that in the future it will occur whenever the SD
is present
Makes teaching or training more effective
Fading: is one way to transfer stimulus control from the prompts to the SD
Once the learn starts exhibiting the behavior correctly, the teacher fades the prompts
Once the prompts are removed, the behavior is under stimulus control of the SD
Thus, teaching is not complete until prompts are completely faded and the behavior is under the
stimulus control of the natural SD
Engaging in the correct behavior without prompts is the goal of prompting and fading
Prompting gets the correct behavior to occur, while fading transfers stimulus control to the SD
The transfer of stimulus from the prompts should be done gradually
Example - Tom could not hit the baseball even though instructions were delivered to them. The coach
pointed to where Tom should stand and gestured how the ball would come in over the plate and where he
should swing the bat
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10
With the extra assistance, Tom began hitting the ball correctly
The coach praised him each time
The coach gradually faded the prompts until the behavior was occurring in the presence of the SD
(pitcher throws the ball) without any supplemental stimuli
Types of Prompts
The two major categories include response prompts and stimulus prompts
Response Prompts
A response prompt is the behavior of another person that evokes the desired response in the presence of
the SD
All four types of response prompts involve the behavior of one person, who tries to influence the
behavior of another person
Response prompts are intrusive, where one person exerts control over another
Least intrusive prompts should be used first and resort to more intrusive ones when they are
necessary
1. Verbal prompts
When the trainer says something that helps the learner engage in the correct behavior at the right
time
Includes instructions, rules, hints, reminders, questions, or any other verbal instructions
2. Gestural prompts
Any physical movement or gesture of the trainer that leads to the correct behavior in the presence
of the SD
If the trainer models the entire behavior, it is not a gestural prompt
Example - when a coach points to the place where the batter should stand, showing the motion of
the ball, or where to swing the ball
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10
3. Modeling prompts
Any demonstration of the correct by the trainer
The learner observes the model and imitates the modeled behavior in the presence of the SD
To be successful, the learn must be able to imitate the models behavior
Most learners benefit from observing models
4. Physical prompts
A trainer physically helps the person to engage in the correct behavior at the right time
The trainer executes all or part of the behavior with the learner
Involves hand-over-hand guidance, in which the trainer guides the learner’s hands through the
behavior
Examplean art teacher many guide a students hand when teaching how to mold clay
Appropriate when telling or showing the learner the behavior is ineffective
Most behaviors can be prompted physically, except language
Also known as physical guidance
Stimulus Prompts
A stimulus prompt involves some change in a stimulus, or the addition or removal of a stimulus, to make a
correct response more likely
Might involve a change in the SD or the S-delta that makes the SD more salient (more noticeable)
and makes the S-delta less salient so that the learner is more likely to respond to the SD (to make
the correct discrimination)
Other stimuli may be used with the SD or S-delta to make the SD more salient
1. Within-stimulus prompts
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Description
10 Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control Prompts: are used to increase the likelihood that a person will engage in the correct behavior at the correct time Used during discrimination training to help the person engage in the correct behavior in the presence of SD Are an antecedent stimuli given before or during performance of a behavior Function of prompts is to produce an instance of the correct behavior so that is can be reinforced The teacher provides supplemental stimuli (prompts) with the SD so that the student will perform the correct behavior D The teacher then reinforces the correct behavior so that in the future it will occur whenever the S is present Makes teaching or training more effective D Fading: is one way to transfer stimulus control from the prompts to the S Once the learn starts exhibiting the behavior correctly, the teacher fades the prompts D Once the prompts are removed, the behavior is under stimulus control of the S Thus, teaching is not complete until prompts are completely faded and the behavior is under the D stimulus control of the natural S Engaging in the correct behavior without prompts is the goal of prompting and fading Prompting gets the correct behavior to occur, while fading transfers stimulus control to the S The transfer of stimulus from the prompts should be done gradually Example - Tom could not hit the baseball even though instructions were delivered to them. The coach pointed to where Tom should stand and gestured how the ball would come in over the plate and where he should swing the bat www.notesolution.com
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