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Chapter 11

Behaviour Modficiation - Chapter 11 Book Notes

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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11
Chaining
Behavioral chain: a complex behavior consisting of many component behaviors that occur together in a
sequence
Example - if you a piece of human, you have to engage in a sequence of responses
The actions include (1) reaching into your pocket, (2) pull out the pack of gum, (3) pull a single
stick out of the pack, (4) unwrap the piece of gum, and (5) put the gum in your mouth
A learner can engage in a particular behavior in the sequence only if the previous behavior has
been completed
Each component behavior depends on the occurrence of the previous behavior
Analyzing Stimulus-Response Chains
A behavior chain is often called a stimulus-response chain
Each behavior or response produces a stimulus change that acts as an SD for the next response in
the chain
The whole stimulus-response chain is under stimulus control, so the first response occurs when a
particular SD is presented
The gum in your pocket is an SD for the first response in the chain – reaching in your pocket and
grabbing the pack of hum
A behavioral chain continues only if the last response in the chain results in a reinforcing
consequence
Each subsequent response in the chain occurs because the previous response created the SD that
has stimulus control over that response
The outcome of the chain can be more reinforcing due an establishing operation
The establishing operation might be having a bad taste in your mouth, having an old piece of hum,
or any circumstance that makes fresh breath reinforcing at the time
SD 1 (pack of gum in your pocket) R1 (reach into your pocket)
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SD 2 (your hand in your pocket) R2 (pull out the pack of gum)
SD 3 (pack of gum in your hand) R3 (pull one stick of gum)
SD 4 (one stick of gum in your hand) R4 (unwrap the stick of gum)
SD 5 (unwrapped stick of gum in your hand) R5 (put the gum in your mouth) reinforce (chewing the
gum)
Task Analysis
Task analysis: the process of analyzing a behavioral chain by breaking it down into its individual stimulus-
response components
First step = identify all the behaviors that are necessary to perform the task and write them down
in order
Second step = identity the SD associated with each behavior in the task
Since teaching the task involves discrimination training with each stimulus-response component, a
detailed task analysis is required for an accurate understanding of each component
Identifying the right sequence of behaviors in a chain may be conducted in different ways
Observe a competent person engage in the task and record each of the components
Ask an expert to explain all the components in the task
Perform the task yourself and record the sequence of responses
Advantage = provides the best information about each response and stimulus involved in each
response
If the learner is having difficulty with a certain behavior, that behavior should be broken down in two or
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11
more components. If the learner can master larger units of behavior, two or more components can be
combined into one
The only way to determine whether you have the correct number of steps is to determine how well the task
analysis works for a learner
The next step is to choose a strategy for teaching the skill
Strategies for teaching complex tasks are called chaining procedures
Chaining procedures involve the application of prompting and fading strategies to each stimulus-
response component
Chaining procedures include backward chaining, forward chaining, and total task presentation
Backward Chaining
Backward chaining: is an intensive training procedure used with learners with limited abilities
Prompting and fading are used to teach the last behavior first
By starting with the last behavior, the learner completes the chain on every learning trial
Once the last behavior is mastered, the next behavior is taught
This continues until the learner can exhibit the whole chain of behaviors when presented with the
first SD, without any prompts
The learner receives the natural reinforce in every learning trial
Using reinforcers at each step in the backward chaining process is important, because it makes the
outcome of each step a conditioned reinforcer, and also an SD for the next response
Example - a mother wants to teach her son to complete a five-piece puzzle where the first step is to put in
the first piece, the second step is put in the second piece, and so on
The mother would complete steps 1 through 4 herself, presenting the task as completed except for
the last time
Using prompting, she would teach her son to put in the 5th piece (step 5)
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Description
11 Chaining Behavioral chain: a complex behavior consisting of many component behaviors that occur together in a sequence Example - if you a piece of human, you have to engage in a sequence of responses The actions include (1) reaching into your pocket, (2) pull out the pack of gum, (3) pull a single stick out of the pack, (4) unwrap the piece of gum, and (5) put the gum in your mouth A learner can engage in a particular behavior in the sequence only if the previous behavior has been completed Each component behavior depends on the occurrence of the previous behavior Analyzing Stimulus-Response Chains A behavior chain is often called a stimulus-response chain Each behavior or response produces a stimulus change that acts as an S for the next response in the chain The whole stimulus-response chain is under stimulus control, so the first response occurs when a D particular S is presented The gum in your pocket is an S for the first response in the chain reaching in your pocket and grabbing the pack of hum A behavioral chain continues only if the last response in the chain results in a reinforcing consequence Each subsequent response in the chain occurs because the previous response created the S that has stimulus control over that response The outcome of the chain can be more reinforcing due an establishing operation The establishing operation might be having a bad taste in your mouth, having an old piece of hum, or any circumstance that makes fresh breath reinforcing at the time S 1 (pack of gum in your pocket) R1 (reach into your pocket) www.notesolution.com
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