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Chapter 15

Behaviour Modification - Chapter 15 Book Notes

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 15 - Differential Reinforcement
Differential reinforcement procedures: involved applying reinforcement + extinction to
increase the occurrence of a desirable target behaviour, or to decrease the occurrence of
undesirable behaviour
Different types include:
1. Differential reinforcement of alternative behaviour (DRA)
2. Differential reinforcement of other behaviour (DRO)
3. Differential reinforcement of love rates of responding (DRL)
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviours
DRA: increase the frequency of desirable behaviour, + decrease the frequency of
undesirable behaviour
Desirable behaviour is reinforced every time it occurs, resulting in an increase in the
future probability of desirable behaviour
Undesirable behaviour is not reinforced, resulting in an decrease in the future probability
of the undesirable behaviour
Example – getting Mrs. Williams to be positive
oAntecedent = nurse it present
oResponse = Mrs. Williams complains
oConsequence = Nurse provides attention
oOutcome = Mrs. Williams is more likely to complain when the nurse is present
Reinforcement:
Antecedent = nurse is present
Response = Mrs. Williams says positive things
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Consequence = nurse provides attention
Outcome = in the future, she is more likely to say positive things when a nurse
is present
Extinction
Antecedent = nurse is present
Response = Mrs. Williams complains
Consequence = nurse does not provide attention
Outcome = in the future, she is less likely to complain to nurses
Effective way to increase a desirable behaviour, because by decreasing an interfering
behaviour through extinction, it creates an opportunity for the desirable behaviour to
occur + be reinforced
When to Use DRA
The desirable behaviour must be occurring at least occasionally to be reinforced
If the behaviour is not occurring at all, DRA is not an appropriate procedure – but it can
be used with other procedures such as shaping
If the reinforcer cannot be identified, or if you have no control over the reinforcer – you
cannot use DRA
How to Use DRA
Define the desirable behaviour
Define the undesirable behaviour
Identity the reinforcer
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oOne possibility is to use the reinforcer that is currently maintaining the undesirable
behaviour – this results in the decrease of problem behaviours, and the more
appropriate alternative behaviour will begin to occur more regularly
oAnother way is to observe the person + note which activities or interest they pursue
oQuestionnaires help identify reinforcers
oClinicians can try out a variety of different stimuli, and see which ones function as
reinforcers
oAnother technique is to make each potential reinforcer contingent on an operant
response
If the frequency or duration of the responses increases when a stimulus is
contingent on the responses, you have demonstrate that the stimulus is a
reinforcer
Reinforce the desirable behaviour immediately + consistently
oA behaviour that is reinforced on a continuous reinforcement schedule, at least
initially, is more likely to increase the desirable level + replace the undesirable
behaviours that are not being reinforced
Eliminate reinforcement for the undesirable behaviours
oMust be minimized, so that the contrast between the reinforcement of the desirable
behaviour + undesirable behaviour is maximized
oThe desirable + undesirable behaviours are concurrent operant
oWhen 2 behaviours are maintained by concurrent schedules of reinforcement, the
behaviour that results in greater reinforcement will increases relative to the other
behaviour
Uses intermittent reinforcement
oOnce the target behaviour is occurring consistently & the undesirable behaviour
occurs rarely, the target behaviour should be reinforced intermittently – making it
resistance to extinction
Program for generalization
oIf the desirable behaviour does not occur in all relevant situations, the DRA
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Description
Chapter 15 - Differential Reinforcement Differential reinforcement procedures: involved applying reinforcement + extinction to increase the occurrence of a desirable target behaviour, or to decrease the occurrence of undesirable behaviour Different types include: 1. Differential reinforcement of alternative behaviour (DRA) 2. Differential reinforcement of other behaviour (DRO) 3. Differential reinforcement of love rates of responding (DRL) Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviours DRA: increase the frequency of desirable behaviour, + decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviour Desirable behaviour is reinforced every time it occurs, resulting in an increase in the future probability of desirable behaviour Undesirable behaviour is not reinforced, resulting in an decrease in the future probability of the undesirable behaviour Example getting Mrs. Williams to be positive o Antecedent = nurse it present o Response = Mrs. Williams complains o Consequence = Nurse provides attention o Outcome = Mrs. Williams is more likely to complain when the nurse is present Reinforcement: Antecedent = nurse is present Response = Mrs. Williams says positive things www.notesolution.com
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