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Chapter 17

Behaviour Modification - Chapter 17 Book Notes

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 17 – Using Punishment: Time Out & Response Cost
If functional, non-aversive procedures are ineffective (or not completely effective),
punishment procedures should be considered
Aversive stimulus: any stimulus whose contingent presentation decreases the future
probability of a behaviour
oOr, whose contingent removal increases the future probability of a behaviour
If a punishment procedure is used, it is often a negative punishment procedure involved
removal of reinforcing events after a problem
Two common negative punishment procedures include: time out & response cost
Time Out
Time out: the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period of time, contingent
on the problem behaviour
oEx – a student is removed from the reinforcing activity in the classroom for a few
minutes
oDuration = 1-10 minutes, but can be extended for a brief period until the client is no
longer engaging in the problem behaviour
oThe absence of the problem behaviour is required at the end of time-out, so that the
termination of the time-out does not negatively reinforce the problem
oContingent delay: the extension of a time-out – which results in a decrease in the
future probability of the problem behaviour
oEx – the teacher takes Cheryl by the arm + walks her to a chair, then sits her down +
tells her that she cannot play if she continues to display disruptive behaviour. She tells
her to sit there until she says that Cheryl can play again
oTwo types of time out include:
1. Exclusionary time out: the person is removed from the room, where the problem
behaviour occurred + taken to another room
oThis removes the person from all sources of positive reinforcement
2. Non-exclusionary time out: the person remains in the room, while being
removed from access to positive reinforcers
Time-out should be used with a differential reinforcement procedure
Time-out decreases the rate of the problem behaviour
Differential reinforcement increases an alternative behaviour to replace the problem
(DRA), or provides the reinforcer for the absence of the problem behaviour (DRO),
while applying extinction for the problem behaviour
If you use time-out without a differential procedure, the following can occur:
oNet loss in reinforcement
oProblem behaviour is more likely to re-emerge after treatment
Considerations
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Description
Chapter 17 Using Punishment: Time Out & Response Cost If functional, non-aversive procedures are ineffective (or not completely effective), punishment procedures should be considered Aversive stimulus: any stimulus whose contingent presentation decreases the future probability of a behaviour o Or, whose contingent removal increases the future probability of a behaviour If a punishment procedure is used, it is often a negative punishment procedure involved removal of reinforcing events after a problem Two common negative punishment procedures include: time out & response cost Time Out Time out: the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period of time, contingent on the problem behaviour o Ex a student is removed from the reinforcing activity in the classroom for a few minutes o Duration = 1-10 minutes, but can be extended for a brief period until the client is no longer engaging in the problem behaviour o The absence of the problem behaviour is required at the end of time-out, so that the termination of the time-out does not negatively reinforce the problem o Contingent delay: the extension of a time-out which results in a decrease in the future probability of the problem behaviour
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