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Chapter 18

Behaviour Modficiation - Chapter 18 Book Notes

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 18 – Positive Punishment Procedures & the Ethics of
Punishment
Positive punishment: aversive events are applied contingent on the occurrence of a
problem behaviour, resulting in a decrease in the future probability of the behaviour
The two major categories are: aversive activities & aversive stimulation
Aversive Activities
The person is made to engage in an aversive activity
Thus, the problem behaviour is less likely to occur in the future
Aversive activity: a low-probability behaviour the person typically would not choose to
engage in
Based on Premack principle – when the requirement to engage in a low-probability
behaviour (aversive activity) is made contingent on the occurrence of a high-probability
behaviour (problem behaviour), the high-probability behaviour will decrease in the future
oAllison was mad at her father for not taking her to park, so she took some crayons &
drew on the kitchen wall
When her dad found out, her made her clean up the drawings + another wall as
well
He ignored her + physically prompted her to continue, if she stopped cleaning
The change agent instructs the client to engage in the aversive activity immediately
contingent on the problem behaviour
oIf the client does not engage in the activity, the change agent uses physical guidance
oEventually the client engages in the activity to avoid the physical guidance that
previously followed the command
Types of positive punishment include:
1. Overcorrection: the client is required to engage in an effortful behaviour for an
extended period on each instance of the behaviour
Positive practice: the client has to engage in correct forms of relevant behaviour
contingent on an instance of the problem behaviour
oEx – If a child submits an assignment with spelling mistakes, he must write
out the correct spelling of each word 10 times
Restitution: the client must correct the environmental effects of the problem
behaviour + restore the environment to a condition better than which existed
before the problem behaviour
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Description
Chapter 18 Positive Punishment Procedures & the Ethics of Punishment Positive punishment: aversive events are applied contingent on the occurrence of a problem behaviour, resulting in a decrease in the future probability of the behaviour The two major categories are: aversive activities & aversive stimulation Aversive Activities The person is made to engage in an aversive activity Thus, the problem behaviour is less likely to occur in the future Aversive activity: a low-probability behaviour the person typically would not choose to engage in Based on Premack principle when the requirement to engage in a low-probability behaviour (aversive activity) is made contingent on the occurrence of a high-probability behaviour (problem behaviour), the high-probability behaviour will decrease in the future o Allison was mad at her father for not taking her to park, so she took some crayons & drew on the kitchen wall When her dad found out, her made her clean up the drawings + another wall as well He ignored her + physically prompted her to continue, if
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