Chapter 14 ± Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning
Operant Versus Respondent Behavior
x Operant conditioning (Skinner) ± behavior that operates on the environment can be modified by its
x Respondent conditioning (Skinner term EXW«3DYORYLDQ&RQGLWLRQLQJ± deals with automatic stimulus-
x Deals with behaviors that are elicited automatically by some stimulus
o Causes an existing behavior to occur
o Involves reflexive behavior
o New stimulus-response sequence is learned
x Unconditioned Stimulus (US) ± stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning
x Unconditioned response (UR) ± response elicited by a US.
x Conditioned stimulus (CS) ± originally neutral now elicits reflective response.
x Conditioned response (CR) ± learned reflective response to conditioned stimulus.
x Neutral Stimulus ± stimuli that do not elicit a particular response in a particular individual
o Ex: Classical Music will not cause a person to automatically salivate.
x Principle of Respondent Conditioning ± A neutral stimulus followed closely in time by a US, which
elicits a UR, then the previously neutral stimulus will also tend to elicit the same response
Factors Influencing Respondent Conditioning
x The greater the number of pairings of a CS with a US, the greater is the ability of the CS to elicit the CR
o Until a maximum strength of the conditioned reflex is reached.
x Stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedes the US by about half a second, rather than by a longer time
or rather than following the US.
o Conditioned taste aversion ± exception to the rule
x A CS acquires greater ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with a given US than if it is only
occasionally paired with the US.