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Chapter 12-14

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12-14: Nociceptor, Aversives, Athanasius Kircher


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere
Chapter
12-14

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Textbook Notes PSYB45 Lec 6
Chapter #12 & Chapter #13 & Chapter #14
1
Chapter # Differetial Reiforeet
Proedures to Derease Behaior
Decreasing Operant Behavior
- Differential reinforcement schedules or procedures are schedules that reinforce specific
rates of responding.
o They may be used to reinforce high or low response rates.
- Procedures presented in earlier chapters that can be used to increase and maintain
operant behavior include positive reinforcement, shaping, fading, chaining, stimulus
discrimination training, generalization, and the schedules of reinforcement.
- Procedures that can be used to decrease operant behavior include operant extinction,
punishment, the antecedent control procedures described in Part III, and the differential
reinforcement procedures described in this chapter.
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates
- Differential reinforcement of low (DRL) rates is a schedule of reinforcement in which a
reinforcer is presented only if a particular response occurs at a low rate.
- One type of DRL, called limited-responding DRL, specifies a maximum allowable number
of responses during a certain time interval in order for a reinforcer to occur.
o The maximum allowable number of responses in limited-responding DRL for
reinforcement to occur can be specified for an entire session or for separate
intervals throughout a session
o Limited-responding DRL is useful when two conditions hold:
(a) some of the behavior is tolerable but
(b) less of it is better.
- A second type of DRL, called spaced-responding DRL, requires that a specified behavior
not occur during a specified interval, and after the interval has passed, an instance of
that behavior must then occur in order for a reinforcer to occur. In other words,
instances of a specific behavior must be spaced out over time.
o Spaced-responding DRL is useful when the behavior to be reduced is actually
desirable provided that it does not occur at too high a rate
o Example: a student who always calls out the right answer not giving other
classmates a chance
o We might do this by placing the behavior on the following type of DRL schedule:
Any target response that occurs after 15 minutes of the previous target response
is immediately reinforced; any tar- get response that occurs within 15 minutes of
the previous target response is not reinforced. Note that a target response
before the interval has passed causes the timing of the interval to start over
again. This procedure is called a spaced-responding DRL 1-response/15-minute
schedule. This type of schedule requires that responses be emitted for
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Textbook Notes PSYB45 Lec 6
Chapter #12 & Chapter #13 & Chapter #14
2
reinforcement to occur.
Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding
- Differential reinforcement of zero responding (DRO) is a schedule in which a reinforcer
is presented only if a specified response does not occur during a specified period of time.
o a target response before the interval has passed causes the timing of the interval
to start over again
o a DRO is sometimes referred to as differential reinforcement of other responding.
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior
- By an incompatible response, we mean a response that cannot be emitted at the
same time as the target response.
- For example, sitting and standing are incompatible behaviors. If we decide to
decrease a target response by withholding reinforcers for it (if we know their
source and block them) and by reinforcing an incompatible response, the schedule
is referred to as differential reinforcement of incompatible (DRI) behavior
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior
- differential reinforcement of alternative (DRA) behavior, which is a procedure that
involves the extinction of a problem behavior combined with reinforcing a behavior that
is topo- graphically dissimilar to, but not necessarily incompatible with, the problem
behavior
- Example: During training sessions, Kyle was frequently aggressive and attempted to hit,
scratch, or kick the therapist.
o To decrease this behavior, Vollmer et al. implemented a DRA.
o During training sessions, they reinforced compliance with performing various
requested tasks and ignored aggressive behavior.
o Note that this was a DRA instead of a DRI in that Kyle was physically able to be
compliant and still show aggression.
o The DRA eertheless as effetie i dereasig Kle’s aggressio as ell as
increasing his compliance.
Pitfalls of Differential Reinforcement Procedures for Decreasing Behavior
Unaware-Misapplication Pitfall
- A pitfall that is unique to DRL is the tendency to unknowingly reinforce a desirable
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Textbook Notes PSYB45 Lec 6
Chapter #12 & Chapter #13 & Chapter #14
3
behavior on a DRL, thereby causing that desirable behavior to occur at a low rate rather
than reinforcing the behavior on a schedule that would maintain that behavior at a high
rate.
- Understanding this pitfall may help us to appreciate how underachievers are frequently
generated in our society.
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Differential Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior
1) Decide which type of schedule should be used to reduce the target behavior. Use limited-
responding DRL if some of the target behavior is tolerable, but the less the better. Use
spaced-responding DRL if the behavior is desirable as long as it does not occur too rapidly or
too frequently. Use DRO if the behavior should be eliminated and there is no danger that
the DRO procedure might result in the reinforcement of an undesirable alternative
behavior. Use DRI or DRA if the behavior should be eliminated and there is a danger that
DRO would strengthen undesirable alternative behavior.
2) Decide what reinforcer to use. In general, the procedure will be most effective if the
reinforcer is the one maintaining the behavior that you want to reduce and if the reinforcer
can be withheld for that behavior (see Chapter 23).
3) Having chosen which procedure to use and a reinforcer, proceed as follows
a) If a limited-responding DRL schedule is used to be:
i) Record as baseline data the number of target responses per session for several
sessions or more to obtain an initial value for the DRL schedule that will ensure
frequent reinforcement.
ii) Gradually decrease the responses allowed on the DRL in such a way that
reinforcement occurs frequently enough throughout the procedure to ensure
adequate progress by the student
iii) Gradually increase the size of the interval to decrease response rate below that
obtained with
b) spaced-responding DRL schedule is to be used:
i) Record baseline data over several sessions or more, determine the average time
between responses, and use this average as the starting value of the DRL schedule.
ii) Gradually increase the value of the DRL schedule in such a way that reinforcement
occurs frequently enough throughout the procedure to ensure adequate progress by
the student.
c) If DRO is to be used:
i) Record baseline data over several sessions or more to obtain an initial interval for
the DRO.
ii) Use DRO starting values that are approximately equal to the mean value between
instances of the target behaviors during baseline.
iii) Gradually increase the size of the interval in such a way that reinforcement occurs
frequently enough to ensure adequate progress by the student.
d) If DRI is to be used:
i) Choose an appropriate behavior to strengthen that is incompatible with the
behavior to be eliminated.
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