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Chapter 10-11

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10-11: Weaning, Contin, Errorless Learning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere
Chapter
10-11

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Textbook Notes PSYB45 Lec 5
Chapter #10 & Chapter #11
1
Chapte # - Chagig the Stiulus
Cotol of a Behaio ith Fadig
Fading
- Fading is the gradual change over successive trials of an antecedent stimulus that
controls a response so that the response eventually occurs to a partially changed or
completely new antecedent stimulus
- fading can be a very useful procedure for transferring the control of that response to
some other stimulus
- Errorless discrimination training, sometimes referred to as errorless learning, is the use
of a fading procedure to establish a stim- ulus discrimination so that no errors occur
- 3 advantages of errorless transfer of a discrimination over procedures involving trial and
error:
o First, errors consume valuable time.
o Second, if an error occurs once, it tends to occur many times, even though it is
being extinguished
o Third, the nonreinforcement that occurs when errors are being extinguished
often produces emotional side effects such as tantrums, aggressive behavior,
and attempts to escape from the situation.
- Fading procedures can be used in many learning situations with very young children and
with persons with developmental disabilities including autism
- Script-fading procedures have been used to teach children with autism to initiate
interactions with others.
Dimensions of Stimuli for Fading
- dimension of a stimulus is any characteristic that can be measured on some continuum
- fading occurs along dimensions of stimuli, such as the loudness of the question that
Veroia preseted to Peter, the pressure of a teaher’s had that guides a hild’s
printing, and the clarity of dots that a child might be expected to trace
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading
1 the Final Target Stimulus
- The final target stimulus should be chosen carefully. It is important to select it so that
the occurrence of the response to that particular stimulus is likely to be maintained in
the natural environment.
2 The Starting Stimulus: A Prompt
- At the beginning of a fading program, it is important to select a starting stimulus that
reliably evokes the desired behavior.
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Textbook Notes PSYB45 Lec 5
Chapter #10 & Chapter #11
2
- A prompt is a supplemental antecedent stimulus provided to increase the likelihood that
a desired behavior will occur, but that is not the final target stimulus to control that
behavior.
Instructor Behaviors as Prompts
- Physical prompts (also called physical guidance) consist of guiding the learning through
touch.
o Parents frequently use physical guidance to help their children learn new
behavior, such as holding their hands while teaching them to walk
- Gestural prompts are certain motions that a teacher makes, such as pointing to the
correct cue or making signals directed to the learner without touching him or her.
o A teacher, for example, might extend a hand in a palm-downward motion as a
prompt for children to talk softly
- Modeling prompts occur when the correct behavior is demonstrated
o swimming coach might model the correct arm movements for the freestyle
stroke for young swimmers
- Verbal prompts are verbal hints or cues.
o A driving instructor might use verbal prompts by telling a student driver to
hek oer our left shoulder efore pullig out.
Environmental Alterations as Prompts
- Environmental prompts consist of alterations of the physical environment in a manner
that will evoke the desired behavior.
o Someone attempting to eat healthily, for example, might put a bowl of fresh fruit
in easy reach while keeping junk food out of sight in a difficult-to-reach
cupboard.
Extra-Stimulus Versus Within-Stimulus Prompts
- Instructor-behavior prompts and environmental prompts can be further subdivided into
extra-stimulus prompts and within-stimulus prompts.
- n extra-stimulus prompt is something that is added to the environment to make a
correct response more likely.
o Example: Poitig to the appropriate loatio here soethig elogs…
Pointing is the extra-stimulus
- A within-stimulus prompt is a variation of the SD or the S to make their characteristics
more noticeable and therefore easier to discriminate.
o Example: Placing the spoon in the correct location
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Textbook Notes PSYB45 Lec 5
Chapter #10 & Chapter #11
3
3 The Fading Steps
- It is er iportat to oitor the learer’s perforae losel to deterie the
speed at which fading should be carried out.
Fading versus Shaping
- Both are procedures of gradual change.
- shaping involves reinforcement of slight changes in a behavior so that it gradually comes
to resemble the target behavior.
- fading involves the gradual change of a stimulus while the response stays about the
same; shaping involves the gradual change of a response while the stimulus stays about
the same.
Pitfalls of Fading
Unaware-Misapplication Pitfall
- it appears to be more difficult to misuse fading inadvertently because the necessary
gradual change in cues rarely occurs by chance
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Fading
1. Choose the Final Target Stimulus
Specify very clearly the stimuli in the presence of which the target behavior should
eventually occur.
2. Select an Appropriate Reinforcer
3. Choose the Starting Stimulus and Fading Steps
a. Specify clearly the conditions under which the desired behavior now occursthat is,
what people, words, physical guidance, and so forth, presently are necessary to
evoke the desired behavior.
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