# PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes -Trichotillomania, Functional Analysis, Sad Movie

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Published on 3 Feb 2013
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18thJan, 2013
PSYB45
Antecedents are things that happened prior to something else happening. Looking at an antecedent can
be helpful in figuring out why someone acted in particular way. For instance, Mary hit Julie. Why did
Mary hit Julie? She hit Julie because Julie tripped her. Julie's tripping Mary was the antecedent to Mary
hitting Julie.
Data usage and functional assessment
Case examples:
Stan has a diagnosis of trichotillomania. He is seeking help to stop pulling out his eyelashes and
Mya would like to lose weight. She has difficulty with emotional eating and with getting the
motivation to exercise.
What are target bahaviours?
-How would we measure Stan’s Target behaviour? (frequency of hair pulling in a day)
-How would we measure Mya’s target behaviour? (the kinds of foods she eats a day and the amounts of
it)
How to measure behaviour? (exam question requires you to label examples with these)
Frequency (yes or no)
Duration (time)
Magnitude (level/ intensity/ size)
Latency
Quality
Trials-to-criterion
Percentage
Advantages of using a data sheet are that it helps people come and see a goal which leads to motivation
to continue to change the behaviour.
1st 2 things before a behaviour is changed is identifying the behaviour and collecting data.
Functional assessment:
Identifying the connections between a target behaviour and its antecedents and consequences.
-Define behaviour
-Identify antecedents
-Identify consequences
How do we identify these components?
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Eg. Losing weight, we 1st identify the food we eat (calorie intake), identify the antecedent (binge eating)
and then we observe the consequences.
Direct Assessment Methods
Observer measure variables through observation.
Unstructured descriptive assessment (naturalistic, eg. One way glass or stalking)
Structured descriptive assessment (test and measurements, eg. Unnaturalistic assessments )
What would be an example of a structured and unstructured assessment for Stan?
Structured- make him perform a work test/ stress test
unstructured- observation
What would be an example of a structured and unstructured assessment for Mya?
Structured- make her watch a sad movie or put her in a gym and see if she works out
unstructured- observation in natural field
What are some drawbacks to these methods?
1) If discovered in an unstructured assessment, the trust in the therapist will be lost and also the
behaviour will change
2) If the observed realise they were being watched, the would act differently
3) It is really expensive to hire someone to watch you all day
Timing assessments:
Continuous
Interval (yes/no)
Time sampling (say for 1 hr, you take only 10 minutes of sample out of the 1 hr)
Indirect Assessment Methods
Abstract ways to measure variables
Interviews, questionnaires or rating scales
Drawbacks of using interviews/ questionnaires:
1) People do not always present the truth
2) People will try to present themselves in more socially accepted ways
3) When we use questionnaires to assess antecedents, we lose out on memory (not everyone will
remember the required information from their life)
Generally, the behaviour that happens exactly before the antecedent (hair pulling)
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