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Chapter 5

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Tantrum, Biofeedback, Intellectual Disability


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Amanda Uliaszek
Chapter
5

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Chapter 5: Reinforcement: Positive and Negative Naela.S
In operant conditioning, reinforcement refers to: process in which consequence of behaviour
strengthens tht behaviour thus making it more likely to occur
consequence is contingent- consequence occurs in behaviour occurs
reinforcer- object/event that serves as a consequence in reinforcement; stimulus introduced or
changed when behaviour occurs
--> reinforcer is something the person “wants” or finds “pleasant”
--> reward-less precise term, think of its as an obvious event such as prize
Natural & Programmed Reinforcement
natural reinforcers- unprogrammed rewards ppl receive as natural part of their everyday lives
examples of natural reinforcers:
e.g. smiling at someone lead to conversation therefore increase the behaviour in the future
e.g. telling a joke is reinforced by the enjoyment other ppl express thus you'll increase behaviour
e.g. eating food reinforced by the good taste & hunger reduction
automatic reinforcement: a behaviour produces a reinforcement directly, without the need of
other ppl (e.g. scratching an itch)
programmed reinforcers: rewards that are deliberately applied with intention of strengthening
specific behaviours
-->e.g. high grades for good school work, employers use to promote worker safety
Positive & Negative Reinforcement
positive reinforcement-- process in which adding/introducing an item or experience as a
consequence of a behaviour strengthens that behaviour
--> positive reinforcer: item/experience that's added or introduced as consequence of behaviour &
strengthens tht action (e.g. praise & snacks Bob's mom gave him for doing h.w)
negative reinforcement-- a process in which decreasing or removing an aversive stimulus as a
consequence of a behaviour strengthens that behaviour
--> behaviours that receive negative reinforcement: drinking alcohol to reduce unpleasant feelings,
taking pill to reduce pain, eating food to reduce feelings of hunger
Unconditioned & Conditioned Reinforcement
unconditioned reinforcers (primary reinforcers): function as reinforcers as result of inborn
processes (never had to learn it)
-->e.g. Unconditioned reinforcers include food, water, warmth when the person is, respectively,
hungry, thirsty, cold
conditioned reinforcer (secondary reinforcer): stimuli tht did not have ability to strengthen
behaviour until became reinforcing as result of learning; something positive that comes from
them
-->e.g. Conditioned reinforcers include praise, TV shows, games, money
Types of Positive Reinforcement
1.) Tangible and Consumable Reinforcers
tangible-material objects as reinforcers (toys, clothing, money)
consumable- things we can eat or drink (candy, pop)
but why is food NOT often used in interventions?
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