PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 18: Cud, Reinforcement, Applied Behavior Analysis

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
CH.18- Using Time-out & Response-Cost Punishment to Decrease a Behaviour Naela.S
Deciding Whether to Use Punishment
punishment- process in which consequence of a behaviour decreases future performance of tht
behaviour
positive punishment: aversive stimulus/condition (e.g. reprimand) is added as consequence of
behaviour
negative punishment: stimulus (e.g. money) is taken away
--> 2 types: time-out, response cost
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Punishment
advantages: rapid results, eliminates behaviour almost entirely (e.g. self-injurious behaviour)
disadvantages: cud lead to target person having strong emotional reactions: escape, avoidance,
aggressive behaviours
When To Consider Using Punishment
behaviour analysts try to avoid punishment, but when is it acceptable, what issues to consider?
1.) consider whether nonaversive methods have been used:
--> can use functional assessment to figure out whether we cud use other alternatives to
punishment such as manipulating antecedents, extinction, differential reinforcement
-->use punishment if all of these techniques above don't work in decreasing target behaviour
2.) deciding whether to use punishment relates to characteristics of target person's behaviour:
--> need to look at target behaviours likelihood of causing injury/harm to person or others
(if likelihood high= punishment)
--> acceptable for self-injurious behaviour like severe aggression, vomiting
-->highly embarrassing (e.g self-stimulation) or bizarre behaviours makes person socially
isolated= punishment is way to go
3.) our ability to control extraneous, counterproductive reinforcers of undesirable behaviour:
--> some behaviours automatic/built in reinforcers-- self-stimulation, public masturbation
--> naturally occurring reinforcement: stealing, speeding when driving
-->some behaviours reinforced by others
--> when we can't control extraneous behaviours= nonpunitive methods won't work so use
punishment
4.) types of punishers available:
-->response cost, reprimands, time-out most acceptable forms of punishers; physical
punishment least acceptable
-->thus more likely to use negative punishment (as they have least negative side effects)
--> punisher must be effective in decreasing target behaviour
Negative Punishment: Time-Out & Response-Cost
Using Time-Out
time-out- punishment method in which, contingent on misbehaviour, person’s reinforcing env't
is converted or moved, usually for brief period, to one tht is less reinforcing
1.) isolation time-out-- misbehaved person removed from reinforcing env't to separate setting
such as cubicle, w/ no opportunity for reinforcement
2.) exclusion time-out-- person cut from opportunities for reinforcement without being isolated
(e..g being moved to other side of classroom & not allowed to participate in ongoing reinforcing
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Document Summary

Ch. 18- using time-out & response-cost punishment to decrease a behaviour naela. s. Deciding whether to use punishment punishment- process in which consequence of a behaviour decreases future performance of tht behaviour positive punishment: aversive stimulus/condition (e. g. reprimand) is added as consequence of behaviour negative punishment: stimulus (e. g. money) is taken away. Advantages and disadvantages of using punishment advantages: rapid results, eliminates behaviour almost entirely (e. g. self-injurious behaviour) disadvantages: cud lead to target person having strong emotional reactions: escape, avoidance, aggressive behaviours. 1. ) consider whether nonaversive methods have been used: -> can use functional assessment to figure out whether we cud use other alternatives to punishment such as manipulating antecedents, extinction, differential reinforcement. ->use punishment if all of these techniques above don"t work in decreasing target behaviour. 2. ) deciding whether to use punishment relates to characteristics of target person"s behaviour: -> need to look at target behaviour"s likelihood of causing injury/harm to person or others (if likelihood high= punishment)

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