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Chapter 11

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Cud, Alarm Clock, Errorless Learning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Amanda Uliaszek
Chapter
11

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CH.11- Shortcut Stimulus Control Methods Naela. S
Prompting
prompts- are stimuli/ antecedents tht supplement everyday discriminative stimuli for a
behaviour, thereby reminding person to perform a behaviour or helping person learn how to
perform it
most prompts are learned Sᴰs
prompting forms basis for stimulus control to be transferred or “shifted” from prompt to desired
or normal Sᴰ
two types: response & stimulus prompts
Response Prompts
response prompts- shortcut stimulus control methods in which teacher or behaviour analyst
performs an action as supplement to normal Sᴰ to set occasion for learner to perform target
behaviour
Physical Guidance Prompts
physical guidance prompt- response prompts tht involve manually moving person's body
through desired behaviour
often used to teach simple tasks to children
--> e.g. infant who are physically guided to shake rattle & hear its sound soon do it
themselves to produce the reinforcing sound
also useful w/ older kids & adults who are trying to improve complex skills such as golfing,
playing violin or dancing
--> e.g. violin teacher mite put violin position & manually move kid's head to position chin,
position hands to correct position etc
placing equipment in elders hands (e.g. bowling ball) & helping them to use it can increase their
involvement in activities
Verbal Prompts
verbal prompts- response prompts tht are composed of words, such as directions
e.g when teaching a child to read new word, teacher would point to the word and say “dog” then
ask child “what's the word” then mite repeat again “it's a dog” until eventually child seeing
word, normal Sᴰ, will be sufficient
e.g director of play saying first few words of an actor's lines during rehearsal when actor can't
remember them
a form of verbal prompts are instructions, oral or written information tht is designed to
describe how to perform target behaviour
--> e.g. manual to teach u how to ensemble something
used in many ways:
--> four brain-injured ppl were able to modify their behaviour to avoid accidents at home by
using checklists tht described potential hazards & included steps to eliminate it
--> (opportunity to play game to make their diets healthier) customers at cafeteria serving line
got cards tht had verbal prompts such as “the idea is valid- have a salad”. At end of 6 weeks
they cud use their cards to win prizes. Even though winning prizes didn't depend on what
food customers bought, diets improved during intervention :)
can be less direct such as “wht is next thing you'll do?”-- which doesn't say what specific
behaviour shud be, but can serve to encourage person to make response
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