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Chapter 4

PSYB45 - chapter 4.pdf


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Amanda Uliaszek
Chapter
4

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PARENTING AND PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS
Characterize family interactions
Develop into a coercive pattern
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Respond in a coercive/ dominating manner - e.g. snapping "you are a brat today"
Mother can:
e.g. 4 year old Tim sasses his mother
Training in general parenting skills
Change parents behavior -> change kids' behavior
Teaching parents behavior analysis skills
Learn how to use reinforcement, modeling etc.
Modeling and discussion are useful for teaching parents behavior change methods
Correcting a child existing difficulties
e.g. children's oppositional behavior and bedwetting
Parent training is effective in treating many childhood problems
Observed in a 20min play session - showed 200 oppositional behavior, only 30 cooperative
When oppositional behavior occurs: punish him by putting him in an empty room
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When cooperative behavior occurs: reward by smiling
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Taught parent:
Case: oppositional behavior of 4 year old Eddie
Train parents: manage antecedents + consequence -> prevent + correct oppositional behavior
Oppositional behavior - acting in a hostile and contrary manner e.g. frequently arguing , ignore rules
Involves operant & respondent conditioning
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Operant: B(wetting) ----->C( loud bell)
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US (loud bell) -------------> UR (waking up)
CS (bladder tension) ----> CR (waking up)
Respondent:
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Solution1: use urine alarm apparatus - alarms when it senses liquid
If bed is dry: praise + encourage him to use the toilet
If bed is wet: change pajama + make them remake the bed
Parents wake child up periodically during 1st week: prevent incident
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Solution 2: a program of operant conditioning technique - child + parent as participants
People with this problem don't wake up when bladder exists the limit
Bed wetting/ nocturnal enuresis - wetting the bed at least twice a month after reaching 5 year of age
EDUCATION
Enhancing instructional methods
Explains concepts, give examples, ask questions, give feedbacks..
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Advanced form = computer-assisted instruction (CAI) - uses computer to teach students via a series of
lessons
Programmed instruction - a self-teaching process in which students learn materials presented step-by-step as a
series of discrete items with corrective feedback in textbooks/ technological devices
Use of computers in classroom rooted from the concept:
Student must get at least 80% on each module
Effective an primary, secondary, college
Problem: mastery criteria and student procrastination
Personalized system of instruction (PSI) / keller plan - divides course content into units (modules) -> have test ready ->
immediate feedback
Improving classroom conduct
Teachers look for antecedents in the classrooms to alter those antecedents
Teacher can employ consequence e.g. praising+ pay attention for on task behavior
Decrease disruptive behavior by: not giving attention
Improve classroom conduct by: rewards
More reinforcement, less punishment
Consequence have great impact on behavior
PSYB45|chapter 4|some areas of effective application
Friday, February 01, 2013
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