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Chapter 9

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Reinforcement, Equivalence Class, Classical Conditioning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere
Chapter
9

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PSYB45 CHAPTER 9
CHAPTER 9 : STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION AND STIMULUS GENERALIZATION
Learning to Respond at the Right Time and Place
Any situation in which behavior occurs can be analyzed in terms of three sets of events: (a) the
stimuli that exist just prior to the occurrence of the behavior, called antecedent stimuli, (b) the
behavior itself, and (c) the consequences of the behavior
oABC (antecedent, behaviour, consequences) assessment
Stimulus control: degree of correlation between the occurrence of a particular antecedent stimulus
and the occurrence of a subsequent response
Types of Controlling Stimuli: SDs and Ss
Discriminative stimulus (SD): is a stimulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced.
It is a cue that a particular response will pay off
S: is a stimulus in the presence of which a response will not be reinforced. It is a cue that a
particular response will not pay off
A stimulus can be both SD and S at the same time (Ex: kid swearing will be reinforced around his
friends but punished around his parents)
Stimulus Discrimination
Stimulus discrimination training: procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of an SD and
extinguishing a response in the presence of an S
After sufficient stimulus discrimination training, the effects can be described:
1. Good stimulus control—a strong correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus
and a particular response, or
2. A stimulus discrimination—a response occurs to an SD, not to an S
Stimulus Generalization
Stimulus generalization: reinforcing a response in the presence of a stimulus or situation and the effect of the
response becoming more probable in the presence of another stimulus or situation
1. Unlearned Stimulus Generalization Due to Strong Physical Similarity
oThe more physically similar 2 stimuli are, the more stimulus generalization will occur
between them
oEx: dog - walks on four legs hard and big ears - easily can classify other creatures with same
characteristics as dogs
2. Learned Stimulus Generalization Involving Limited Physical Similarity
oStimulus Class: concept
oCommon-element stimulus class: set of stimuli, all of which have one or more physical
characteristics in common
oConcept behav is demonstrated when an individual emits an appropriate response to all
members of a common-element stimulus class and doesn’t emit that response to stimuli that
do not belong to the class
oEx: however learned is when the child needs to grabs the concept of dog in order to classify a
small chihuahua and a German shepherd as both dogs.
3. Learned Stimulus Generalization in Spite of No Physical Similarity
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