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Chapter 10

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Errorless Learning, Classical Conditioning, Stimulus Control

Course Code
Jessica Dere

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Fading: change over successive trials of an antecedent stimulus that controls a response so that
response occurs to a new (or partially new) antecedent stimulus.
Errorless discrimination training (aka: errorless learning): use of fading to establish a
stimulus discrimination so that no errors occur. Has 3 advantages:
1. Errors consume time
2. If error occurs once, tends to occur many times, even if it’s being extinguished.
3. The nonreinforcement that accompany extinguishment of errors often produces emotional
side effects (tantrums, aggressive behav, attempts to escape situation)
Fading can also be used to teach tracing, copying and drawing shapes
Dimension of a stimulus: any characteristic that can be measured in some continuum
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading
The Final Target Stimulus needs to b maintainable in natural environment
The Starting Stimulus - A prompt - an extra stimulus provided to increase likelihood of behav
occurrence but not final target
Fading (same response) Versus Shaping
(same stimulus)
Fading involves shifting response
from one stimulus to a different one,
while shaping involves the gradual
change of a response while the
stimulus stays about the same
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Fading
Choose the final target stimulus
Select an appropriate reinforcer
Choose the starting stimulus and fading steps
oSpecify specific prompts that will evoke the desired behavior
oSpecify clearly the dimensions (such as color, people, and room size) that you will fade to
reach the final target stimulus control.
oOutline the specific fading steps to be followed and the rules for moving from one step to
the next
Put the plan into effect
oAcross trials, the fading of cues should be so gradual that there are as few errors as
possible. However, if an error occurs, move back to the previous step for several trials
and provide additional prompts
oWhen control by the final target stimulus is obtained, review the guidelines in previous
chapters for weaning the learner from the program
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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