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Chapter 27

PSYB45H3 Chapter 27: Chapter 27
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
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Jessica Dere

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Chapter 27: Approaches to Behavior Therapy: Cognitive Restructuring; Self-Directed Coping Methods; and Mindfulness and Acceptance Procedures Cognitive processes/cognition are verbalizations or images that are frequently called believing, thinking, expecting or perceiving Cognitive Restructuring Methods Two underlying major assumptions 1. Individuals interpret and react to events by forming cognitions- beliefs, expectations, attitudes on the basis of the perceived significance of those events 2. Defective or maladaptive cognitions can cause emotional and behavior disorders These are the primary focus of psychotherapy Cognitive therapists believe that faulty thinking is the cause of emotional and behavioral problems thus the primary focus of the cognitive approach to therapy is to help clients recognize and change faulty thinking Strategies that help maladaptive thinking and replacing it with adaptive thinking is known as cognitive restructuring aka Behavioral approach o A person verbal behavior and imagery can affect his or her emotional and over behavior, so the differences between cognitive and behavioral approaches are not as great as it might first appear Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy Being clumsy is an irrational though that causes anxiety, sadness, anger, and troublesome emotion (Albert Ellis) RET, was based on the premise that most everyday emotional problems and related overt behaviors stem from irrational interpretations that people make of events in their lives o People tend to think in absolute terms: such as a student thinking I must do well in all my courses o People tend to overgeneralize: student thinking after getting a poor mark on one exam Ill never be a good student o People also tend to catastrophize: telling themselves that things are so horrible they cant possibly stand it For example, Jim who slept through his alarm and was going to be late for class, rushed to get ready. He cut himself while shaving and thought, Im a walking disaster! I always screw up. Later, he got caught in a traffic jam. Why does the worst always happen to me? He felt angry and frustrated. Ellis considered such self-statements like Im a walking disaster, and The worst always happens to me to be at the root of emotional problems (e.g., Jims anger and frustration) RET approach is to teach clients to counteract such irrational self-statements with more positive and realistic statements; in 3 main phase 1. The therapist helps the client identify troublesome thought that are based on irrational belief 2. In a very confrontational, argumentative way the RET therapists vigorously challenged the clients irrational beliefs that are thought to be the basis for the problematic self-talk 3. The client is taught through modeling and homework assignments to replace the irrational self-statements with statements based on rational beliefs Ellis added the work behavior to the name of this therapy, and now called Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) Evaluation of REBT Ellis approach is successful = because of homework assignments influence the client to confront anxiety-evoking situations in real like, which may lead to extinction of the anxiety The improvement results of a combinations of both the correction of faulty thinking and the homework assignments? o Examination of studies of REBT that do not include a behavioral component suggests that a big part of the success of REBT might be due to the homework assignments rather than to the disputation of irrational beliefs Becks Cognitive Therapy Aaron Beck developed a cognitive therapy procedure that is similar to REBT, original for the treatment for depression but been applied for manic states, anxiety, hysteria, obsessional disorders, psychosomatic disorder, and thinking disorders such as schizophrenia According to Beck, ppl with psychological disorders engage excessively in aberrant, fallacious, or dysfunctional thinking, various type includes: 1. Dichotomous thinking: which is thinking in absolute terms such as assuming that one is a failure if one gets any grade less than an A 2. Arbitrary inference: which is drawing a conclusion on the basis of inadequate evidence such as misinterpreting a frown on the face of a passerby as the passerby disapproval 3. Overgeneralization: which is reaching a general conclusion on the basis of a few instances such as assuming that a single failure means that one cannot succeed at anything 4. Magnification: exaggerating the meaning or significant of a particular event such as believing that it is terrible or catastrophic not to obtain something that one wants very badly Becks procedure involves three general components: 1. Clients identify the dysfunctional thoughts and maladaptive assumptions that might be causing debilitating emotion or behavior Accomplished through a series of visualization exercises and easily answered questions 2. Once a thought or dysfunctional assumption has been identified, several methods can be used to counteract it Method reality checking, or hypothesis testing After the client has identified the dysfunctional belief or thought and has learned to distinguish it as a hypothesis rather than as a reality, he or she then tests it empirically through homework assignments For example, if a client believes that everyone he meets turns away from him in disgust, the therapist might help him devise a system for judging other peoples facial expressions and body language so that the client can determine objectively whether the thoughts behind the problem are indeed accurate Or, clients might be encouraged to participate in role-playing sessions A client who believed that store clerks thought she was inept changed this negative view of herself when she played the role of a salesclerk waiting on her 3. Beck frequently uses additional homework assignments that contain liberal doses of behavioral modification procedures to develop various desirable daily activities For example, depressed individuals frequently neglect routine tasks such as showering or bathing, bed making, and housecleaning Homework assignments might be directed toward reestablishing these behaviors Comparison of the Approaches of Ellis and Beck Similar: o Both assume the clients difficulty is cause by dysfunctional thought patterns, such as a tendency to exaggerate or catastrophize unpleasant events o Both focus on changing a clients irrational thinking o Both use
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