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Chapter 2

PSYB45H3 Chapter 2: PSYB45 - WEEK 2

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere

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Week 2: Respondent vs. Operant Conditioning, Positive
& Conditioned Reinforcement
Chapters 3 & 4
Chapter 3: RESPONDENT (CLASSICAL, PAVLOVIAN) CONDITIONING OF
REFLEXIVE BEHAVIOR
Principle of Respondent Conditioning
Respondent behaviors: behaviors elicited by prior stimuli and are not affected by their
consequences eg. smelling dinner while cooking
Respondent behaviors are influenced by respondent conditioning, based on unconditioned
reflexes
An unconditioned reflex is a stimulus-response relationship in which a stimulus
automatically elicits a response apart from any prior learning hard wired or inborn
A stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning is called an
unconditioned stimulus (US)
A response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus is called an unconditioned stimulus is
called an unconditioned response (UR)
An unconditioned reflex consists of a US and a UR
The principle of respondent conditioning states that if an NS is followed closely in time
by a US that elicits a UR, then the previous NS will also tend to elicit the response UR-
in the future.
A conditioned reflex is a stimulus-response relationship in which a stimulus elicits a
response because of prior respondent conditioning
Factors Influencing Respondent Conditioning
First, the greater number of pairings of a CS with a US, the greater is the ability of the CS
to elicit the CR, until a max strength of the conditioned reflex has been reached
Second, stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedes the US by about half a second,
rather than by a longer time or rather than following the us backward conditioning in
the latter case
A CS acquires greater ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with the US than if
it is only occasionally paired with the US
When several neutral stimuli precede a US, the stimulus that is most consistently
associated with the US is the one most likely to become a strong CS
Respondent conditioning will develop more quickly and strongly when the CS or US or
both are intense rather than weak
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2
Higher-Order Conditioning
The procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus by being
paired with another conditioned stimulus, instead of with an unconditioned stimulus, is
known as higher-order conditioning
Eg. the conditioning stages were as follows
o First, warnings were paired with painful stimuli
o Then being in high places was paired with warnings
o Result: being in a high place now elicits a response (Fear) similar to that elicited
by painful stimuli
Common Respondently Conditioned Responses
Digestive system salivation reflex; taste aversion is an exception to the rule that
respondent conditioning is ineffective if there is a long delay b/w the CS and the US
Circulatory system increased HR and BF
Respiratory system coughing, sneezing, asthma attacks
Other systems:
o Seligman - Biological preparedness refers to the predisposition of members of a
species to be more readily conditioned to some neutral stimuli as CSs than to
others
o Eg. Conditioned taste aversion
Procedures for Eliminating a Conditioned Reflex
Respondent extinction: involves the procedure of presenting a CS while withholding the
US, with the result that the CS gradually loses its capability of eliciting the CR
Respondent extinction is the reason that higher-order conditioning is difficult to obtain
beyond the 2nd order
Counterconditioning: a conditioned response may be eliminated more effectively if a new
response is conditioned to the conditioned stimulus at the same time that the former
conditioned response is being extinguished
o A CS will lose its ability to a elicit a CR if that CS is paired with a stimulus that
elicits a response that is incompatible with the CR
Generalization and Discrimination of Respondent Behavior
Respondent stimulus generalization occurs when an organism has been conditioned so
that a particular CS elicits a CR, and then a similar stimulus elicits that CR
Respondent stimulus discrimination a stimulus functions as a CS to elicit a CR
because that stimulus has been paired with a US that elicits that CR, but a similar
stimulus does not function as a CS for that CR because the second stimulus has been
paired with extinction trials
Applications of Respondent Conditioning and Extinction
Eg. aversion therapy to treat alcoholism
Treating chronic constipation
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Description
Week 2: Respondent vs. Operant Conditioning, Positive Conditioned Reinforcement Chapters 3 4 Chapter 3: RESPONDENT (CLASSICAL, PAVLOVIAN) CONDITIONING OF REFLEXIVE BEHAVIOR Principle of Respondent Conditioning Respondent behaviors: behaviors elicited by prior stimuli and are not affected by their consequences eg. smelling dinner while cooking Respondent behaviors are influenced by respondent conditioning, based on unconditioned reflexes An unconditioned reflex is a stimulusresponse relationship in which a stimulus automatically elicits a response apart from any prior learning hard wired or inborn A stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning is called an unconditioned stimulus (US) A response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus is called an unconditioned stimulus is called an unconditioned response (UR) An unconditioned reflex consists of a US and a UR The principle of respondent conditioning states that if an NS is followed closely in time by a US that elicits a UR, then the previous NS will also tend to elicit the response UR in the future. A conditioned reflex is a stimulusresponse relationship in which a stimulus elicits a response because of prior respondent conditioning Factors Influencing Respondent Conditioning First, the greater number of pairings of a CS with a US, the greater is the ability of the CS to elicit the CR, until a max strength of the conditioned reflex has been reached Second, stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedes the US by about half a second, rather than by a longer time or rather than following the us backward conditioning in the latter case A CS acquires greater ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with the US than if it is only occasionally paired with the US When several neutral stimuli precede a US, the stimulus that is most consistently associated with the US is the one most likely to become a strong CS Respondent conditioning will develop more quickly and strongly when the CS or US or both are intense rather than weak
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