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Chapter 2

Study Guide For Chapter 2

by OC2

Course Code
Christian Campbell

of 4
Chapter 2: Areas of Application: An Overview
Parenting and Child Management
- As the child matures through the early school years, adolescence, and into adulthood
there are numerous applications of behaviour modification to teach parents methods to
improve their child rearing practices
- Behaviour modification techniques have been applied to develop child’s essential needs
such as language skills, walking, toilet training, and influencing to do household chores
- Parents have also been taught behaviour strategies for decreasing problem behaviour,
such as nail biting, aggressive behaviour, and tantrums
- When the behaviour problems are complex, in addition to helping parents to work with
their child, behaviourally oriented clinical psychologist treat the problem directly
Education from Preschool to University
- Personalized system of Instruction (PSI)
o It is a behavioural approach for teaching
o This approach has a number of distinctive characteristics that make it possible for
teachers to use principles of behaviour modification effectively to improve class
room instruction
o PSI is also known as Keller Plan
o It identifies the target behaviours or learning requirements for a course in the form
of study questions, such as the questions at the end of each chapter in this book
o It requires students to study only a small amount of material before demonstrating
mastery, such as the amount of material in one or two chapters that might be
studied in a week or two
o It has frequent test in which students demonstrate their knowledge
o It has mastery criteria so that students must demonstrate mastery at any particular
level before going onto the next
o Students are not personalized for failing to demonstrate mastery on a test but
simply restudy and try again
o Use a number of student assistants to score the tests immediately and provide
feedback to students concerning test performance
o Students are able to go at their own pace through the course material at rates that
suit their own particular abilities and time demands
o Uses lectures primarily for motivation and demonstration rather than as a major
means of presenting new information
Severe Problems: Developmental Disabilities, Childhood Autism, and Schizophrenia
- Some of the most dramatic successes of beahvour modification have occurred in
application to individual with severe behaviour handicaps
- Developmental disabilities
o Mental retardation
! Term used by American Association on Mental Retardation
! Disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual
functioning and in adaptive behaviour as expressed in conceptual, social,
and practical adaptive skills
! The disability originates before the age of 18
! Limited intellectual functioning is defined as two standard deviation
below the mean of an appropriate assessment tool, which would be about
70-75 or below on some IQ test
! Includes about 2.3% of the population
o Proposed treatment and training program
! Deinstitutionalization
Persons with developmental disabilities should be helped to lead
the most normative lives possible, and that large institutions were
simply normative
This lead to development of community living options for persons
with developmental disabilities
! Civil rights advocates
Parents of persons with developmental disabilities, were secured
the legal rights of an individuals with severe handicaps to receive
an education
This meant educational programs had to be established
! Behaviour Modifiers
Creating the technologies that make it possible to improve persons
with severe and profound developmental disabilities
! Childhood Autism
Children diagnosed with childhood Autism often show some
behaviours similar to children diagnosed with developmental
They score low on a variety of self-care tasks, such as dressing,
grooming, and feeding
! Schizophrenia
Because inadequate social relationships are a prime contributor the
poor quality of life experienced by people with schizophrenia.
Social skills have been the behaviour targeted for change
Cognitive behavioural techniques have also been used to
effectively reduce or eliminate hallucinations or delusions in
person with schizophrenia; this means behavioural techniques can
be a great contributor to the treatment, management, and
rehabilitation of person with schizophrenia
! Clinical behavioural therapy
Sometimes there is a clear problematic areas within an individual
that can be easily treated through specific behavioural therapy
- Self-Management of Personal Problems
o Successful self-modification requires a set of skills that can be learned
o These skills may involve different ways of rearranging your environment to
control your subsequent behaviour
- Medical and Health Care
o Behavioural medicine
! Broad interdisciplinary field concerned with the links among health,
illness, and behaviour
! Behavioural psychologist practice it in close consultation with physician,
nurses, dieticians, sociologists, and other specialists on problems
o Heath psychology
! It is part of behavioural medicine
! Psychological factors that can influence or cause illness, and how people
can be encouraged to practice healthy behaviour so as to prevent health
! Health psychologist have applied behavioural principles in five major
Direct treatment of medical problems
o Biofeedback, consists of providing immediate information
to an individual about a person’s physiological processes,
such as hearth rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and
brain waves
o These information help the individual to gain control over
the physiological process that is monitored
Establishing Treatment Compliance
o Taking drugs on time
Promotion of Healthy living
o Application of techniques to help people manage their own
behaviour to stay healthy
Management of Caregivers
o Healthy psychologist are not concerned with the client, but
also those who have an impact on the medical condition of
the client’s family, friends, and various medical state