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Chapter 2

Study Guide For Chapter 2

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Christian Campbell

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Chapter 2: Areas of Application: An Overview
Parenting and Child Management
- As the child matures through the early school years, adolescence, and into adulthood
there are numerous applications of behaviour modification to teach parents methods to
improve their child rearing practices
- Behaviour modification techniques have been applied to develop child’s essential needs
such as language skills, walking, toilet training, and influencing to do household chores
- Parents have also been taught behaviour strategies for decreasing problem behaviour,
such as nail biting, aggressive behaviour, and tantrums
- When the behaviour problems are complex, in addition to helping parents to work with
their child, behaviourally oriented clinical psychologist treat the problem directly
Education from Preschool to University
- Personalized system of Instruction (PSI)
o It is a behavioural approach for teaching
o This approach has a number of distinctive characteristics that make it possible for
teachers to use principles of behaviour modification effectively to improve class
room instruction
o PSI is also known as Keller Plan
o It identifies the target behaviours or learning requirements for a course in the form
of study questions, such as the questions at the end of each chapter in this book
o It requires students to study only a small amount of material before demonstrating
mastery, such as the amount of material in one or two chapters that might be
studied in a week or two
o It has frequent test in which students demonstrate their knowledge
o It has mastery criteria so that students must demonstrate mastery at any particular
level before going onto the next
o Students are not personalized for failing to demonstrate mastery on a test but
simply restudy and try again
o Use a number of student assistants to score the tests immediately and provide
feedback to students concerning test performance
o Students are able to go at their own pace through the course material at rates that
suit their own particular abilities and time demands
o Uses lectures primarily for motivation and demonstration rather than as a major
means of presenting new information
Severe Problems: Developmental Disabilities, Childhood Autism, and Schizophrenia
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Description
Chapter 2: Areas of Application: An Overview Parenting and Child Management - As the child matures through the early school years, adolescence, and into adulthood there are numerous applications of behaviour modification to teach parents methods to improve their child rearing practices - Behaviour modification techniques have been applied to develop child’s essential needs such as language skills, walking, toilet training, and influencing to do household chores - Parents have also been taught behaviour strategies for decreasing problem behaviour, such as nail biting, aggressive behaviour, and tantrums - When the behaviour problems are complex, in addition to helping parents to work with their child, behaviourally oriented clinical psychologist treat the problem directly Education from Preschool to University - Personalized system of Instruction (PSI) o It is a behavioural approach for teaching o This approach has a number of distinctive characteristics that make it possible for teachers to use principles of behaviour modification effectively to improve class room instruction o PSI is also known as Keller Plan o It identifies the target behaviours or learning requirements for a course in the form of study questions, such as the questions at the end of each chapter in this book o It requires students to study only a small amount of material before demonstrating mastery, such as the amount of material in one or two chapters that might be studied in a week or two o It has frequent test in which students demonstrate their knowledge o It has mastery criteria so that students must demonstrate mastery at any particular level before going onto the next o Students are not personalized for failing to demonstrate mastery on a test but simply restudy and try again o Use a number of student assistants to score the tests immediately and provide feedback to students concerning test performance o Students are able to go at their own pace through the course material at rates that suit their own particular abilities and time demands o Uses lectures primarily for motivation and demonstration rather than as a major means of presenting new information Severe Problems: Developmental Disabilities, Childhood Autism, and Schizophrenia www.notesolution.com - Some of the most dramatic successes of beahvour modification have occurred in application to individual with severe behaviour handicaps - Developmental disabilities o Mental retardation ! Term used by American Association on Mental Retardation ! Disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behaviour as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills ! The disability originates before the age of 18 ! Limited intellectual functioning is defined as two standard deviation below the mean of an appropriate assessment tool, which would be about 70-75 or below on some IQ test ! Includes about 2.3% of the population o Proposed treatment and training program ! Deinstitutionalization • Persons with developmental disabilities should be helped to lead the most normative lives possible, and that large institutions were simply normative • This lead to development of community living options for persons with developmental disabilities ! Civil rights advocates • Parents of persons with developmental disabilities, were secured the legal rights of an individuals with severe handicaps to receive an education • This meant educational programs had to be established ! Behaviour Modifiers • Creating the technologies that make it possible to improve persons with severe and profound developmental disabilities ! Childhood Autism • Children diagnosed with childhood Autism often show some behaviours similar to children diagnosed with developmental disabilities • They score low on a variety of self-care tasks, such as dressing, grooming, and feeding ! Schizophrenia • Because inadequate social relationships are a prime contributor the poor quality of life experienced by people with schizophrenia. Social skills have been the behaviour targeted for change • Cognitive behavioural techniques have also been used to effectively reduce or eliminate hallucinations or delusions in www.notesolution.com person with schizophrenia; this means behavioural techniques can be a great contributor to the treatment, management, and rehabilitation of person with schizophrenia ! Clinical behavioural therapy • Sometimes there is a clear problematic areas within an individual that can be easily treated through specific behavioural therapy procedures - Self-Management of Personal Problems o Successful self-modification requires a set of skills that can be learned o These skills may involve different ways of rearranging your environment to control your subsequent behaviour - Medical and Health Care o Behavioural medicine ! Broad interdisciplinary field concerned with the links among health, illness, and behaviour ! Behavioural psychologist practice it in close consultation with physician, nurses, dieticians, sociologists, and other specialists on problems o Heath psychology ! It is part of behavioural medicine ! Psychological factors that can influence or cause illness, and how people can be encouraged to practice healthy behaviour so as to prevent health problems ! Health psychologist have applied behavioural principles in five major ways: • Direct treatment of medical problems o Biofeedback, consists of providing immediate information to an individual about a person’s physiological processes, such as hearth rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and brain waves o These information help the individual to gain control over the physiological process that is monitored • Establishing Treatment Compliance o Taking drugs on time • Promotion of Healthy living o Application of techniques to help people manage their own behaviour to stay healthy • Management of Caregivers o Healthy psychologist are not concerned with the client, but also those who have an impact on the medical condition of the client’s family, friends, and various medical state www.notesolution.com o Changing the behaviour of those would improve the persons service provided • Stress Management o The study of stressors, their effects on behaviour, and the development of behavioural strategies for coping with stressors - Gerontology o Behavioural techniques are being used increasingly to help the elderly and chronic-care patients to solve such problems - Community Behavioural Analysis o For example, having all nurses in a clinic wear gloves to protect themselves and others from bacteria - Business, Industry, and Government o Organizational behaviour management ! The application of behavioural principles and methods to study and control of individual or group behaviour within organizational settings ! It emphasizes specific activities of staff that characterize successful performances or produces successful results - Sport Psychology o Allied Sports Psychology ! Use of psychological knowledge to enhance athletic performance and the satisfaction of athletes and others associated with sports www.notesolution.comChapter 2: Areas of Application: An Overview Parenting and Child Management - As the child matures through the early school years, adolescence, and into adulthood there are numerous applications of behaviour modification to teach parents methods to improve their child rearing practices - Behaviour modification techniques have been applied to develop childs essential needs such as language skills, walking, toilet training, and influencing to do household chores - Parents have also been taught behaviour strategies for decreasing problem behaviour, such as nail biting, aggressive behaviour, and tantrums - When the behaviour problems are complex, in addition to helping parents to work with their child, behaviourally oriented clinical psychologist treat the problem directly Education from Preschool to University - Personalized system of Instruction (PSI) o It is a behavioural approach for teaching o This approach has a number of distinctive characteristics that make it possible for teachers to use principles of behaviour modification effectively to improve class room instruction o PSI is also known as Keller Plan o It identifies the target behaviours or learning requirements for a course in the form of study questions, such as the questions at the end of each chapter in this book o It requires students to study only a small amount of material before demonstrating mastery, such as the amount of material in one or two chapters that might be studied in a week or two o It has frequent test in which students demonstrate their knowledge o It has mastery criteria so that students must demonstrate mastery at any particular level before going onto the next o Students are not personalized for failing to demonstrate mastery on a test but simply restudy and try again o Use a number of student assistants to score the tests immediately and provide feedback to students concerning test performance o Students are able to go at their own pace through the course material at rates that suit their own particular abilities and time demands o Uses lectures primarily for motivation and demonstration rather than as a major means of presenting new information Severe Problems: Developmental Disabilities, Childhood Autism, and Schizophrenia www.notesolution.com
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