everyday activities and note those activities engaged in most often. –David
Premack(1959)- states, opportunity to engage in a behavior that has a high
probability of occurring can be used to reinforce a behavior that has a lower
probability of occurring, e.g. W.G. Johnson(1971) used this principle on a
depressed 17 yrs college student – student was asked to imagine + thought(low-
probability) as prompted from a statement on an index card just before each
instance of urinating(high probability) after few days the student thought +
thoughts occurred only before urinating and it increased and depressive thoughts
• Choosing variety among a # of rein forcers is a valuable asset to a training
program e.g. for developmental disabilities e.g. tray contained fruits, raisins,
peanuts and diet rinks can be presented w/ instructions o take one item.
• Simple choose a behavior that the individual emits occasionally and that does not
appear to be followed by any rein forcer, record how often the behavior occurs
w/o reinforcement over several trails, +then present the item immediate following
the behavior for a few additional trails and see what happens. If the individual
Begins to emit that behavior more often, then your item is indeed a rein forcer..
but in experience, not using an effective rein forcer is a common error of training
programs. (an object is defined as a reinforcer only by its affect on behavior).
• All rein forcers involve external(extrinsic stimuli) and all have internal (intrinsic)
• 3)Motivating Operations- Rein forcers will not be effective if the individuals not
deprived of them for some period of time. Satiation on the other hand refers to
that condition in which the individuals has experienced the rein forcer to such an
extent that it is no longer reinforcing ; “Enough, enough”!
• Deprivation and satiation (a) temporally alter the effectiveness of a rein forcer
(b) alter the frequency of behavior reinforced by that rein forcer, motivating
operations (MOs)e.g. feeding some1 salty food. It would momentarily increase
effectiveness of water for that person, and also would evoke behavior –asking for
a drink, turning on a tap that had previously been followed by water. An MO
might be though as a motivational variable- a variable that affects the likelihood
and direction and direction of behavior, because genetically determined not
learned that food deprivation increases the effectiveness of food as a rein forcer,
these events are called unconditioned motivating operations.
• 2 types of MOs : establishing operation- temporarily increase effectiveness of a
rein forcer. Satiation is an example of an abolishing operation because it
temporarily decreases the effectiveness of a rein forcer.
• 4) Rein forcer Size- size of a rein forcer should be sufficient to strengthen the
behavior that u want to increase. The goal is to conduct a # of trials during a
session , such as teaching basic language skills to a person w/ developmental
disability , the rein forcer in each trial should be small enough to minimize
satiation and maximize the # of reinforced trails per session.
• 5) Instruction: Make use of rules –instructions can facilitate behavior change in
many ways.1- speed up learning process, if individuals understand the
instructions, reinforcement may influence an individuals to work for delayed