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Chapter 10

Study Guide For Chapter 10

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Christian Campbell

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Chapter 10: Getting a New Behaviour to Occur: An Application of Shaping
Three stages to shape certain behaviour within an individual
- Specify the final desired behaviour
- Identify a response that could be used as a starting point in working toward the final
desired behaviour
o For someone wanting to jog quarter a mile in a day start off by walking outside
with sneakers out of the house
- Reinforcement the start response; then make closer and closer approximations until
eventually the desired response occurs
Shaping
- Can be used to establish a behaviour the individual never performs
- The modifier begins by reinforcing a response that occurs with greater than zero
frequency and at least remotely resembles the final desired response
- It is sometimes referred to asthe method of successive approximations
- Can sometimes be defined as the development of a new behaviour by the successive
reinforcement of closer approximations and the extinguishing of preceding
approximations of behaviour
- A good example of shaping can be how when children first babble by using words such
as “dada and “ma-ma” parents reinforce them with positive caring behaviour and
eventually those behaviours extinguish and new behaviour is establish
- Five aspects or dimensions of behaviour that can be shaped:
o Topography
! Spatial configuration or a form of a particular response
! Behaviours such as teaching a child to say mommy instead of ma-ma
o Frequency
! A behaviour that occurs a number of times in a given period
! During an exercise, number of steps that a person walks
! Duration is the length of time that it last
An example would be lengthen time of studying before taking a
break
o Latency
! Time between the occurrence of a stimulus and the response evoked by
that stimulus
! A common name for latency isreaction time”
o Intensity
! It is the force of response
! The physical effect the response has (or potentially) has on the
environment
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Description
Chapter 10: Getting a New Behaviour to Occur: An Application of Shaping Three stages to shape certain behaviour within an individual - Specify the final desired behaviour - Identify a response that could be used as a starting point in working toward the final desired behaviour o For someone wanting to jog quarter a mile in a day start off by walking outside with sneakers out of the house - Reinforcement the start response; then make closer and closer approximations until eventually the desired response occurs Shaping - Can be used to establish a behaviour the individual never performs - The modifier begins by reinforcing a response that occurs with greater than zero frequency and at least remotely resembles the final desired response - It is sometimes referred to as “the method of successive approximations” - Can sometimes be defined as the development of a new behaviour by the successive reinforcement of closer approximations and the extinguishing of preceding approximations of behaviour - A good example of shaping can be how when children first babble by using words such as “dada” and “ma-ma” parents reinforce them with positive caring behaviour and eventually those behaviours extinguish and new behaviour is establish - Five aspects or dimensions of behaviour that can be shaped: o Topography ! Spatial configuration or a form of a particular response ! Behaviours such as teaching a child to say mommy instead of ma-ma o Frequency ! A behaviour that occurs a number of times in a given period ! During an exercise, number of steps that a person walks ! Duration is the length of time that it last • An example would be lengthen time of studying before taking a break o Latency ! Time between the occurrence of a stimulus and the response evoked by that stimulus ! A common name for latency is “reaction time” o Intensity ! It is the force of response ! The physical effect the response has (or potentially) has on the environment www.notesolution.com ! Example, teaching someone to talk loud without being extensively loud, scratching with enough force so that you do not damage skin o Fading involved gradual change of stimulus while response stays about the same o Shaping involves gradual change of response while stimulus stays about the same Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping - Specifying the Final Desired Behaviour o First stage is to identify the final desired behaviour which is often referred to as the terminal behaviour o The final desired behaviour should be stated in such a way that all relevant characteristics of the behaviour are identified - Choosing a Starting Behaviour o To start the terminal behaviour, you must identify a starting point o Should be a behaviour that occurs often enough to be reinforced within the session time, and it should approximate the final desired behaviour o i.e., walking around the house periodically to reach your goal of jogging quarter a mile in a day, is a good starting point o in a shaping program it is crucial to know not only where you are going, but the level at which an individual is performing - Choosing the Shaping Steps o Before initiating the shaping program, it is helpful to outline the successive approximate the final desired behaviour o The step-by-step procedure continues until the individual reaches its goal - Moving Along at the Correct Pace o Reinforce an approximation several times before proceeding to the next step o Avoid reinforcing too many times of any shaped step o If you lose a behaviour because you are going to fast or taking too large of a step, return to the earlier approximation where you can pick up the behaviour again Pitfall of Shaping - Shaping can be accidentally applied with unfortunate results by people who are not knowledgeable about it - A child falls on the ground and hits his head, parents run for protection. Later child hits his head on the group on purpose, parents ignore, behaviour is intensified and parents are forcefully reinforcing head banging behaviour - Another pitfall is the unknowing failure of a person to apply shaping when it should be applied www.notesolution.comChapter 10: Getting a New Behaviour to Occur: An Application of Shaping Three stages to shape certain behaviour within an individual - Specify the final desired behaviour - Identify a response that could be used as a starting point in working toward the final desired behaviour o For someone wanting to jog quarter a mile in a day start off by walking outside with sneakers out of the house - Reinforcement the start response; then make closer and closer approximations until eventually the desired response occurs Shaping - Can be used to establish a behaviour the individual never performs - The modifier begins by reinforcing a response that occurs with greater than zero frequency and at least remotely resembles the final desired response - It is sometimes referred to as the method of successive approximations - Can sometimes be defined as the development of a new behaviour by the successive reinforcement of closer approximations and the extinguishing of preceding approximations of behaviour - A good example of shaping can be how when children first babble by using words such as dada and ma-ma parents
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