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Chapter 12

Study Guide For Chapter 12

by OC2

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Christian Campbell
Chapter
12

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Chapter 12: Eliminating Inappropriate Behaviour Through Punishment
The principle of Punishment
- Punisher
o An event that, when presented immediately following a behaviour, causes the
behaviour to decrease in frequency
- Punishment
o If in a given situation, somebody does something that is immediately followed by
a punisher, then that person is likely to do the same thing again when he or she
next encounters a similar situation
- For behaviour modifiers, “punishment is simply a technical word referring to the
application of an immediate consequence for following a behaviour of an individual that
has the effect of decreasing the likelihood of future instances of that behaviour in that
individual
Types of Punishment
- Pain-Inducing Punisher
o Also referred to as physical punisher
o Include all punishers immediately following a behaviour that activate pain
receptors or other sense receptors that typically evoke feelings of discomfort
o Such stimuli are called unconditioned punishers
! Stimuli that are punishing without any prior training or conditioning
- Reprimands
o Strong negative verbal stimuli immediately contingent on behaviour
o Conditioned punisher are stimulus paired with punishment which itself becomes a
punisher
- Time-outs
o Transferring an individual from a more reinforcing to less reinforcing situation
immediately following a behaviour
o Two types of time-outs
! Exclusionary time-out
Consists of removing the learner for a short time from the situation
in which reinforcement is occurring
Often a special time-out room is used for this purpose
Five minutes is very effective for time-out room and it should not
be very long
! Nonexclusionary time-out
Consists of introducing into the situation a stimulus associated
with less reinforcement
Ignoring a child when he/she is not doing something right
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