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PSYB45H3 (1,085)
Chapter 12

Study Guide For Chapter 12

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Christian Campbell

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Chapter 12: Eliminating Inappropriate Behaviour Through Punishment
The principle of Punishment
- Punisher
o An event that, when presented immediately following a behaviour, causes the
behaviour to decrease in frequency
- Punishment
o If in a given situation, somebody does something that is immediately followed by
a punisher, then that person is likely to do the same thing again when he or she
next encounters a similar situation
- For behaviour modifiers, “punishment is simply a technical word referring to the
application of an immediate consequence for following a behaviour of an individual that
has the effect of decreasing the likelihood of future instances of that behaviour in that
individual
Types of Punishment
- Pain-Inducing Punisher
o Also referred to as physical punisher
o Include all punishers immediately following a behaviour that activate pain
receptors or other sense receptors that typically evoke feelings of discomfort
o Such stimuli are called unconditioned punishers
! Stimuli that are punishing without any prior training or conditioning
- Reprimands
o Strong negative verbal stimuli immediately contingent on behaviour
o Conditioned punisher are stimulus paired with punishment which itself becomes a
punisher
- Time-outs
o Transferring an individual from a more reinforcing to less reinforcing situation
immediately following a behaviour
o Two types of time-outs
! Exclusionary time-out
Consists of removing the learner for a short time from the situation
in which reinforcement is occurring
Often a special time-out room is used for this purpose
Five minutes is very effective for time-out room and it should not
be very long
! Nonexclusionary time-out
Consists of introducing into the situation a stimulus associated
with less reinforcement
Ignoring a child when he/she is not doing something right
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Description
Chapter 12: Eliminating Inappropriate Behaviour Through Punishment The principle of Punishment - Punisher o An event that, when presented immediately following a behaviour, causes the behaviour to decrease in frequency - Punishment o If in a given situation, somebody does something that is immediately followed by a punisher, then that person is likely to do the same thing again when he or she next encounters a similar situation - For behaviour modifiers, “punishment” is simply a technical word referring to the application of an immediate consequence for following a behaviour of an individual that has the effect of decreasing the likelihood of future instances of that behaviour in that individual Types of Punishment - Pain-Inducing Punisher o Also referred to as physical punisher o Include all punishers immediately following a behaviour that activate pain receptors or other sense receptors that typically evoke feelings of discomfort o Such stimuli are called unconditioned punishers ! Stimuli that are punishing without any prior training or conditioning - Reprimands o Strong negative verbal stimuli immediately contingent on behaviour o Conditioned punisher are stimulus paired with punishment which itself becomes a punisher - Time-outs o Transferring an individual from a more reinforcing to less reinforcing situation immediately following a behaviour o Two types of time-outs ! Exclusionary time-out • Consists of removing the learner for a short time from the situation in which reinforcement is occurring • Often a special time-out room is used for this purpose • Five minutes is very effective for time-out room and it should not be very long ! Nonexclusionary time-out • Consists of introducing into the situation a stimulus associated with less reinforcement • Ignoring a child when he/she is not doing something right www.notesolution.com ! Response Cost • Removal of a specified amount of reinforcer immediately following a particular behaviour • Can be used in modification program in which learners earn tokens as reinforcer • It differs from time-out in that there is no change in prevailing reinforcement contingencies when its administered • In response cost a reinforcer is taken away following an undesirable response • In extinction procedure, a reinforcer is withheld following a previously reinforced response • Direct acting effect o Is the decreased frequency of a response because of its immediate punishing consequences (within 30 seconds) • Indirect-acting o Weakening of a response that is followed by a punisher even though the punisher is delayed Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment - Maximizing the conditions for a desirable alternative response o To decrease an undesirable response, it is maximally effective to concurrently increase some desirable alternative response that will compete with the undesirable behaviour to be eliminated o You should attempt to identify powerful SDs that control the desirable behaviour and present these to increase the likelihood that the behaviour will occur o Influence the user of positive reinforcement to bring about good behaviour and avoid punishment - Minimizing the Cause of the Response to be Punished o Try to identify the current stimulus control of the undesirable behaviour o May identify existing reinforcers that are maintaining the desirable behaviour o Minimizing the causes of the undesirable behaviour while maximizing the conditions for a desirable alternative behaviour may cause the latter to compete so strongly with the former that is greatly reduced or completely suppressed without the use of punishment - Selecting a Punisher o The more strong or intense the punishing stimulus, the more effective it will be in decreasing the undesirable behaviour o The verbal reprimands may function as an SD for subsequent desirable behaviour of the child, regardless of the effect of the verbal reprimand as a punisher or a reinforcer on the preceding undesirable behaviour www.notesolution.com o Punisher should be one that can be presented in a manner such that it is no way paired with positive reinforcement o Rather than selecting just one punisher, it may be more effective to select several that are varied over successive instances of the undesirable behaviour - Adding Antecedents (Including rules) for Punishment o SDP is a stimulus in the presence of which a response will be punished o If in the presence of SDP a punisher is consistently applied following a response, then that response is less likely to occur when the SDP is encountered - Delivering the Punisher o Punishment is most effective when the punisher is presented immediately following every instance of the undesirable behaviour Should Punishment be Used? - A number of organizations are against the idea of using punishment to improve desirable behaviour - Sometimes best way to prevent self-injurious behaviour is through punishment. For example, developmental disabled children who injure themselves can suppress their behaviour through punishment and later positive reinforcement - Punishment can have a number of potentially harmful effects: o Aggressive behaviour ! Punishment tends to elicit aggressive behaviour ! So when punishing an individual, we should not be surprised if they attack someone else o Emotional Behaviour ! Can create other undesirable emotional side effects, such as crying and general fearfulness o Escape and avoidance behaviour ! May cause the situation and people associated with the aversive stimulus to become conditioned punishers ! When you punish a child when making mistakes in reading, anything associated with the situation will be considered punisher for the child and he/she may instead run away from everything having to do with the learning situation o No new behaviour ! Punishment does not establish any new behaviour, it only suppresses old behaviour o Modeling of Punishment ! Children often model or imitate adults ! If adults apply punishment to children, they might do the same to others o Continued use of Punishment www.notesolution.com ! It may cause the punisher to heavily rely on it and neglect the use of positive reinforcement for a desirable behaviour Behaviour Modification - Because punishers are so easy to abuse and because their application can have a number of potentially harmful side effects, we recommend that punishment be used as last resort - Behaviour modifiers should consider designing punishment programs only when: o Clear steps are taken to maximize the conditions for a desirable alternative response and to minimize the cause of the response to be punished o The behaviour is very maladaptive and it is the client’s best interest to bring about rapid behaviour change o The client provides informed consent the intervention meets ethical standards o Punishment is applied according to clear guidelines o Program includes safeguards to protect their client Pitfall of Punishment - There are instances in which punishment is applied by people who are not aware that they are doing so - Punishment should be applied only in conjunction with positive reinforcement for a desirable behaviour, and only under the conditions described in the previous subsections www.notesolution.comChapter 12: Eliminating Inappropriate Behaviour Through Punishment The principle of Punishment - Punisher o An event that, when presented immediately following a behaviour, causes the behaviour to decrease in frequency - Punishment o If in a given situation, somebody does something that is immediately followed by a punisher, then that person is likely to do the same thing again when he or she next encounters a similar situation - For behaviour modifiers, punishment is simply a technical word referring to the application of an immediate consequence for following a behaviour of an individual that has the effect of decreasing the likelihood of future instances of that behaviour in that individual Types of Punishment - Pain-Inducing Punisher o Also referred to as physical punisher o Include all punishers immediately following a behaviour that activate pain receptors or other sense receptors that typically evoke feelings of discomfort o Such stimuli are called unconditioned punishers Stimuli that are punishing without any prior training or conditioning - Reprimands o Strong negative verbal stimuli immediately contingent on behaviour o Conditioned punisher are stimulus paired with punishment which itself becomes a punisher - Time-outs o Transferring an individual from a more reinforcing to less reinforcing situation immediately following a behaviour o Two types of time-outs Exclusionary time-out Consists of removing the learner for a short time from the situation in which reinforcement is occurring Often a special time-out room is used for this purpose Five minutes is very effective for time-out room and it should not be very long Nonexclusionary time-out Consists of introducing into the situation a stimulus associated with less reinforcement Ignoring a child when heshe is not doing something right www.notesolution.com
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