PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Tantrum, Reinforcement, Intellectual Disability

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Published on 17 Jun 2014
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Chapter 5 Extinction
Defining Extinction
Extinction: behavior that had been reinforced for period of time was no longer
reinforced and behavior stopped occurring.
Occurs when
1. Behavior that has been previously reinforced
2. No longer results in reinforcing consequences
3. Therefore, behavior stops occurring in future
As long as behavior is reinforced, it will continue to occur
If behavior no longer followed by reinforcing consequence, person will stop
engaging in the behavior
Williams
oIllustrated effectiveness of extinction in decreasing nighttime tantrums of
young child
oDetermined that tantrum behavior was being reinforced by parents
attention
oExtinction procedure called for parents to refrain from providing attention
when child engaged in tantrum behaviors at night
Extinction Burst
Once behavior is no longer reinforced, often increases briefly in frequency,
duration or intensity before it decreases and ultimately stops
Extinction burst: increase in frequency, duration or intensity of unreinforced
behavior during extinction
Novel behaviors (behaviors that don’t typically occur in particular situation) may
occur for brief period when behavior is no longer reinforced
These novel behaviors during extinction bursts may include emotional responses.
Azrin, Hutchinson, and Hake reported that aggressive behavior often is seen when
extinction is used
Extinction burst, involves increase in unreinforced behavior or occurrence of
novel behaviors for brief period of time. It is natural reaction to termination of
reinforcement. It may not be a conscious process.
Spontaneous Recovery
Spontaneous recovery: behavior may occur again even after it has not occurred
for some time
Spontaneous recovery is a natural tendency for behavior to occur again in
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Document Summary

It is natural reaction to termination of reinforcement. If behavior is positive reinforced, consequence is applied or added after behavior. that was previously delivered after behavior. Common misconception about extinction: although extinction is procedurally different depending on type of reinforcement for behavior, outcome is always same (cid:0) behavior stops, common misconception, using extinction simply means ignoring behavior. Ignoring problem behavior functions as extinction only if attention is reinforcer. Factors that influence extinction: 2 factors influence extinction process, reinforcement schedule before extinction, occurrence of reinforcement after extinction. In continuous reinforcement, every occurrence of a behavior is followed by reinforcer. Intermittent reinforcent before extinction produces resistance to extinction: continuous reinforcement before extinction produces much less resistance to extinction, second factor that influence extinction is occurrence of reinforcement after extinction. If reinforcement occurs in course of extinction, takes longer for behavior to decrease: because reinforcement of behavior, once extinction has been started, amounts to intermittent reinforcement, which makes behavior more resistant to extinction.

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