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PSYB45H3 (1,000)
Chapter 3

# PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Dependent And Independent Variables, Abscissa And Ordinate, Complete Graph

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Chapter
3

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Chapt e r 3
Graphin g Beha vi or and Mea s urin g
Chan g e
Chap t er Outlin e
Comp o n e n t s of a Graph
Y-axis and X-axis
Axis Labels
Axis Numb e rs
Data Points
Phase Lines
Phase Labels
Graphi n g Behavior al Data
Graphi n g Data from Different Recordin g Procedur e s
Rese arch Design
A-B Design
A-B-A-B Design
Multiple Baselin e Design
Across Subje cts
Across Behaviors
Across Set tings
Alternating- Treat m e n t s Design
Changi n g Criterion Design
Chapt e r Su m m a r y
Key Term s
Practic e Test
Application s
Misap plications
Chapt e r 3, Quiz 1
Chapt e r 3, Quiz 2,
Chapt e r 3, Quiz 3
Idea s for Clas s Activi ti e s
1. Make up a set of data with obs erv a ti o n s for a tar get beh a vior in bas elin e and tre at m e n t
conditions, provide the dat a set to the stud e n t s , an d have the stu d e n t s co mpos e a graph of
the dat a. You can make the dat a set simple to reflect an A-B design or more complex to
reflect an A-B-A-B or multiple bas eline desi gn. Ask the stu d e n t s what desi gn is illustr at e d in
their gra p h.
2. Make up hypot h e ti c al res e ar c h sce n a rio s and ask the stu d e n t s how th ey would apply the
differe nt res e ar c h design s to the sce n a rio s. For exa m ple, āSuppos e you hav e two pre scho ol
stu d e n t s who enga g e in disruptive beh avi or in the clas sr o o m and you want to evalu at e an
interven tio n to decre a s e the disru ptive beh a vi or. Describ e how you would use a multiple
baseline across subj ect s design to evalu a t e the interv e n tion in this scena rio.ā
Answ er s to Prac ti c e Tes t Qu e s t i o n s
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1. A gra p h is us e d to docum e n t whet h er a be h a vior has chang e d when a beh a vi or
modification proced u r e is imple m e n t e d . The gra p h m ak e s it easi er to comp a r e the levels of
the behavior befor e, durin g, and after tre at m e n t becau s e the levels are visually pres e n t e d
for co mp a ri s o n .
2. The two variables illustrat e d in a beh a vi or modificatio n grap h are tim e and beh a vi or .
3. The Y axis, or ordinat e , is the vertic al axis of th e gra p h. The X axis, or abs ciss a, is the
horizontal axis of the gra p h. The two axe s come toge t h e r at the botto m left of the pa ge.
4. The level of be h a vi or is indicat e d on the Y axis. Time is indicat e d on the X axis.
5. A pha s e is a period of time in which th e sam e treat m e n t (or no treat m e n t) is in effec t.
6. Data points are not conn e c t e d acro s s phas e lines so that differe n c e s in the level of the
behavior in different phas e s can be se en more easily.
7. Your grap h sho uld includ e : (1) the X axis and the Y axis; (2) the label for the X axis an d Y
axis; (3) the nu m b e r s on the Y axis an d the X axis; (4) dat a point s; (5) ph a s e line(s); and (6)
pha s e labels.
8. The lab el for the Y axis of a graph base d on interv al recordi n g will be the āperc e n t a g e of
intervalsā in which the targ e t be h a vior occurre d .
9. The A-B desi gn is the sim plest type of design use d in be h a vi or modifica tion, havin g just
two phas e s : bas eline and treat m e n t. A = bas eline; B = treat m e n t .
10. In the A-B-A-B rev ers al desi gn, baselin e an d treat m e n t phas e s are implem e n t e d twice.
After the first treat m e n t pha s e , the rese a r c h e r re mov e s the tre at m e n t an d revers e s back to
baseline. This seco n d bas elin e is then followe d by replica tion of the treat m e n t . See Figure
3.11 for an ex a m pl e of an A-B-A-B revers al desi gn.
11. A multiple baseline desi gn is a rese a r c h design in which a trea t m e n t is evaluat e d as it
is applied seque n ti ally to two or more subjects, two or mor e be h a viors, or in two or more
settings. Ther e are thre e typ es of m ultiple baseline designs. (1) In a multiple bas eli ne
acros s subjec t s , there is a bas eline and a tre at m e n t phas e for the sa m e target behavior of
two or mor e different subje cts (Figure 3.12). (2) In a multiple bas elin e across be h a viors ,
ther e is a bas eline and treat m e n t phas e for two or mor e different beh a vior s of the sa m e
subjec t (Figur e 3.13). (3) In a multiple baseline acro s s setti n gs , there is a bas eline and
treat m e n t pha s e for two or mor e set tin g s in which the sam e beh a vior of the sa m e subject is
mea s u r e d (Figur e 3.14).
12. An extran e o u s variabl e is any variabl e that is not being me a s ur e d or manipul at e d as
part of tre at m e n t . By withdrawing an d then re- imple m e n t i n g tre at m e n t , it is possi ble to
dem o n s t r a t e that be h a vior cha n g e coincid e s with the application of treat m e n t. This being
the case, it is rea s o n a b l e to concl ud e that beha vi or chan g e is the result of treat m e n t rather
than so m e extra n e o u s variabl e.
13. When trea t m e n t is imple m e n t e d at different times or after a different nu m b e r of
baseline data points in a m ultiple bas elin e de sign, we say that tre at m e n t is āst a g g e r e d ā
over time.
14. In an altern a ting treat m e n t s desi gn (ATD) th e bas eline and treat m e n t conditions (or
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two treat m e n t condition s) are cond u c t e d in rapid succ e s sio n and comp a r e d to eac h oth er
(see Figure 3.15).
15. To judge the effective n e s s of tre at m e n t in an ATD, the level of the beh a vi or in the two
conditions (bas elin e and tre at m e n t or two differe n t tre a t m e n t s ) are comp a r e d within the
sam e tim e period.
16. A cha n gin g criterion de sign typically includ e s a bas eline and treat m e n t phas e , with
seque n ti al perfor m a n c e criteria spe cified within the tre at m e n t phas e (se e Figure 3.16).
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