Chapter 19: Promoting Generalization
•Training produces generality when the trained behavior transfers from training situation to
the natural env’t when training leads to the development of new behavior that has not
been specifically trained or when the trained behavior is maintained in the natural env’t
•Stimulus generalization occurs when behavior becomes more probable in the presence of
1 stimulus or situation as result of having been reinforced in the presence of another
stimulus or situation.
•Several reasons for t he occur rence of stimulus generalization.
1. the more physically similar 2 stimuli are the more stimulus generalization will
occur b/w them (ex: 2 similar-looking berr ies). This is inherited (unlearned)
2. Stimulus generalization might occur from 1 stimulus to another because we have
learned that the 2 stimuli are members of a stimulus common-element class- a set
of stimuli that have some physical characteristics in common (ex: a house with
green shutters & a girl with green socks)
3. Stimulus generalization might occur from 1 stimulus to another because we have
learned that the stimuli are members of equivalence class- a set of completely
dissimilar stimuli that an individual has been trained to match together (ex: t he
words “mutt” “pooch” & a picture of a dog).
•Such stimuli are functionally equivalent in the sense that they control the same
•Both stimulus common-element classes & stimulus equivalence classes are
•Respondent stimulus generalization happens when a respondent CR occurs to
a new stimulus.
Response generalization occurs when a behavior becomes more probable in the presence of a
stimulus or situation as a result of another behavior having been strengthened in the presence of
that stimulus or situation.