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Chapter 6
Punishment
Defining Punishment
Three parts to the definition of punishment:
oA particular behavior occurs,
oA consequence immediately follows the behavior
oAs a result, the behavior is less likely to occur in the future
A punisher is a consequence that makes a particular behavior less
likely to occur in the future
A Common Misconception About Punishment
Most people define punishment as something meted out to a person
who has committed a crime or other inappropriate behavior
Everyday meaning of punishment is different from the behavioral
modification meaning
Positive and Negative Punishment
Positive punishment the occurrence of behavior is followed by the
presentation of an aversive stimulus and as a result, the behavior is
less likely to occur in the future
Negative punishment the occurrence of behavior is followed by the
removal of a reinforcing stimulus and as a result, the behavior is less
likely to occur in the future
Reinforcement strengthens a behavior or makes it more likely to occur
in the future, whereas punishment weakens a behavior or makes it
less likely to occur in the future
Contingent exercise based on Premack principle: if after engaging in
a problem behavior, a person has to do something he or she doesnt
want to do, the person will be less likely to engage in the problem
behavior in the future
Punishment results in an immediate decrease in behavior, whereas
extinction takes longer
Two examples of negative punishment:
oTime-out from positive reinforcement person is removed
from a reinforcing situation for a brief period after the problem
behavior occurs
oResponse cost lose points that were once earned
oBoth involve the loss of a reinforcing stimulus or activity after
the occurrence of a problem behavior
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