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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 8
Respondent Conditioning
Operant behaviors controlled by their consequences
Operant conditioning involves the manipulation of consequences
Respondent behaviors controlled by antecedent stimuli
Respondent consequences involves the manipulation of
antecedent stimuli
Defining Respondent Conditioning
Unconditioned responses (UR) elicited by antecedent stimuli even
though no conditioning or learning has occurred
A UR occurs in all healthy people when an unconditioned stimulus
(US) is presented
Humans have evolved to respond to USs because the URs have
survival value
A UR is a natural reflexive action of the body that occurs when a US is
present
Respondent conditioning occurs when a previously neutral stimulus
(NS) is paired with a US as a result, the NS becomes a conditioned
stimulus (CS) and elicits a conditioned response (CR) similar to
the UR
A UR or CR is called a respondent behavior
Respondent conditioning is also called classical
conditioning /Pavlovian conditioning
Pavlov showed that dogs salivated when meat powder was placed in
their mouths (US will elicit a UR); then presented a NS (the sound of a
metronome) just before he put the meat powder in the dogs mouth
he presented the sound and meat powder together a number of times;
then, presented metronome by itself found that dog salivated to the
sound of the metronome without the meat powder in its mouth; sound
of metronome became a CS because it was paired a number of times
with the meat powder
Any stimulus can become a CS is paired a number of times with a US
Timing of the Neutral Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus
The timing of the NS and US is important if respondent conditioning is
to occur
The US should occur immediately after the onset of the NS increases
likelihood that NS will become CS
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Description
Chapter 8 Respondent Conditioning Operant behaviors controlled by their consequences Operant conditioning involves the manipulation of consequences Respondent behaviors controlled by antecedent stimuli Respondent consequences involves the manipulation of antecedent stimuli Defining Respondent Conditioning Unconditioned responses (UR) elicited by antecedent stimuli even though no conditioning or learning has occurred A UR occurs in all healthy people when an unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented Humans have evolved to respond to USs because the URs have survival value A UR is a natural reflexive action of the body that occurs when a US is present Respondent conditioning occurs when a previously neutral stimulus (NS) is paired with a US as a result, the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and elicits a conditioned response (CR) similar to the UR A UR or CR is called a respondent behavior Respondent conditioning is also called classical conditioningPavlovian conditioning Pavlov showed that dogs salivated when meat powder was placed in their mouths (US will elicit a UR); then presented a NS (the sound of a metronome) just before he put the meat powder in the dogs mouth he presented the sound and meat powder together a number of times; then, presented metronome by itself found that dog salivated to the sound of the metronome without the meat powder in its mouth; sound of metronome became a CS because it was paired a number of times with the meat powder Any stimulus can become a CS is paired a number of times with a US Timing of the Neutral Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus The timing of the NS and US is important if respondent conditioning is to occur The US should occur immediately after the onset of the NS increases likelihood that NS will become CS www.notesolution.com
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