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Chapter 8
Respondent Conditioning
Operant behaviors controlled by their consequences
Operant conditioning involves the manipulation of consequences
Respondent behaviors controlled by antecedent stimuli
Respondent consequences involves the manipulation of
antecedent stimuli
Defining Respondent Conditioning
Unconditioned responses (UR) elicited by antecedent stimuli even
though no conditioning or learning has occurred
A UR occurs in all healthy people when an unconditioned stimulus
(US) is presented
Humans have evolved to respond to USs because the URs have
survival value
A UR is a natural reflexive action of the body that occurs when a US is
Respondent conditioning occurs when a previously neutral stimulus
(NS) is paired with a US as a result, the NS becomes a conditioned
stimulus (CS) and elicits a conditioned response (CR) similar to
the UR
A UR or CR is called a respondent behavior
Respondent conditioning is also called classical
conditioning /Pavlovian conditioning
Pavlov showed that dogs salivated when meat powder was placed in
their mouths (US will elicit a UR); then presented a NS (the sound of a
metronome) just before he put the meat powder in the dogs mouth
he presented the sound and meat powder together a number of times;
then, presented metronome by itself found that dog salivated to the
sound of the metronome without the meat powder in its mouth; sound
of metronome became a CS because it was paired a number of times
with the meat powder
Any stimulus can become a CS is paired a number of times with a US
Timing of the Neutral Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus
The timing of the NS and US is important if respondent conditioning is
to occur
The US should occur immediately after the onset of the NS increases
likelihood that NS will become CS
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Document Summary

Respondent conditioning: operant behaviors controlled by their consequences, operant conditioning involves the manipulation of consequences, respondent behaviors controlled by antecedent stimuli, respondent consequences involves the manipulation of antecedent stimuli. Higher-order conditioning: occurs when a ns is paired with an already-established cs and the. Ns becomes a cs: depends on how well established the cs is when it is paired with the. Conditioned emotional responses (cers: first proposed by watson and rayner who used respondent conditioning procedures to condition a fear response in a young child, Cers or negative cers albert was negative: negative cers fear, anger, disgust, prejudice, positive cers happiness, love. Initially, an emotional response is a ur elicited by a us. Extinction of conditioned responses www. notesolution. com: called respondent extinction, involves the repeated presentation of the cs without presenting the us. Discrimination and generalization of respondent behavior: discrimination in respondent conditioning is the situation in which the.

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