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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Course Code
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 10
Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control
What is Prompting?
Prompts are used to increase the likelihood that a person will engage
in the correct behavior at the correct time
Used during discrimination training to help the person engage in the
correct behavior in the presence of the discriminative stimulus (SD)
Prompts are stimuli given before or during the performance of a
The function of prompts is to produce an instance of the correct
behavior so that is can be reinforced
Makes teaching or training more efficient
Different types of prompts
oInstructions, gestures, modeling, and physical assistance
What is Fading?
Fading is one way to transfer stimulus control from the prompts to the
Gradually remove the prompts until the behavior occurs in the
presence of the SD without any supplemental stimuli
Ex. Stop giving instruction and the coach no longer had to model the
behavior or provide physical assistance to help the players hit the ball
Once the prompts are removed, the behavior is under the stimulus
control of the SD
Teaching is not complete until the prompts are completely faded (help
is removed) and the behavior is under stimulus control of the SD
Engaging in the correct behavior without prompts is the goal of
prompting and fading
Ultimately, the SD must have stimulus control over the behavior
*Prompting gets the correct behavior to occur; fading transfers
stimulus control to the natural SD
In fading, transfer of stimulus control happens because the SD is
always present when the correct response is emitted and reinforced,
whereas the prompt is removed over time
Types of Prompts
(1) Response Prompts
oThe behavior of another person that evokes the desired response
in the presence of the SD
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oAre intrusive they involve one person exerting control over
oVerbal least intrusive; physical most intrusive
oVerbal prompts
When the verbal behavior of another person results in the
correct response in the presence of an SD
When you say something that helps the person engage in
the correct behavior
May include instructions, rules, hints, reminders,
questions etc.
oGestural prompts
Any physical movement or gesture of another person that
leads to the correct behavior in the presence of the SD
If the person demonstrates or models the entire behavior,
it is considered a modeling prompt
oModeling prompts
Any demonstration of the correct behavior by another
person that makes it more likely that the correct behavior
will occur at the right time
A person observes the model and imitates the modeled
behavior in the presence of the SD
oPhysical prompts
Another person physically helps the person to engage in
the correct behavior at the right time
The person using a physical prompt is executing all or
part of the behavior with the learner
Often involves hand-over-hand guidance, in which the
trainer guides the persons hands through the behavior
Physical prompts are appropriate when telling or showing
the person the behavior is ineffective (when verbal,
gestural, and modeling prompts do not evoke the
Most behaviors can be prompted physically (except
Also known as physical guidance
(2) Stimulus Prompts
oInvolves some change in a stimulus, or the addition or removal
of a stimulus, to make a correct response more likely
oWithin-stimulus prompts
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