Chapter 1- Study Questions
1. What is behavior generally, & technically?
Generally: Behavior is anything that a person says or does.
Technically: Behavior is any muscular, glandular or electrical activity of an organism.
Synonyms: activity, action, performance, responding, response and reaction
2. Distinguish b/w behavior & product of behavior? Give ex
Products of Behavior: “Getting an “A” in a behavior modification course, or losing 10 pounds are
products of behavior. The behavior that produces an “A” is studying effectively. The behaviors that
lead to weight loss are resisting overeating and exercising more.
3. Distinguish b/w overt & covert behaviors? Give ex
Overt: (Visible) behaviors that could be observed and recorded by an individual other than the one
performing the behavior. Covert: (Private, internal) activities that cannot be readily observed by
others. Private or covert behaviors do not typically refer to behaviors done in private, such as
undressing in one’s bedroom. Rather, they refer to activities that occur “within one’s skin” and that
therefore require special instruments for others to observe.
4. What are cognitive behavior?
If I were to ask you to close your eyes and imagine a clear, blue sky with a few white fluffy clouds,
you would be able to do so. Imagining and private self-talk in addition to being called covert
behaviors are sometimes refereed to cognitive behaviors.
5. Describe 2 dimensions of behavior. Give ex
Characteristics of behavior that can be measured are called dimensions of behavior. Duration of a
behavior is the length of time that it last (e.g. Mary studied for one hour) The frequency of a
behavior is the number of instances that occur in a given period of time (e.g. Frank planted five
tomato plants in his garden in 30 minutes) The intensity of force of a behavior refers to the physical
effort or energy involved in emitting the behavior. (e.g. Mary has a strong grip when shaking hands)
6. From a behavioral point of view what is intelligence? Creativity?
Intelligence can mean any or all of these things (e.g. .Intelligence test, he is an intelligent speaker);
it refers to ways of behaving. Creativity also refers to the kinds of behavior in which a person is
likely to engage under certain circumstances.
7. What are 3 disadvantages of using summary labels to refer to individual & their
Three disadvantage of using summary labels are:
1. They may lead to pseudo-explanations of behavior (pseudo means false) Another name of pseudo
explanation is circular reasoning.
2. Labels can negatively affect the way an individual might be treated.
3. It may direct our focus to an individual’s problem behaviors rather than to his or her strengths.