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14 Apr 2012

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This chapter describes the use of positive punishment procedures to decrease problem behaviors
In positive punishment, aversive events are applied contingent on the occurrence of a problem
behavior Result is a decrease in the future probability of the behavior
Functional (and nonaversive) treatment approaches should always be used before punishment is
considered and reinforcement procedures should always be used in conjunction with punishment
Two major categories of aversive events are used in positive punishment procedures:
1. Application of aversive activities
2. Application of aversive stimulation
Application of Aversive Activities
Contingent on the problem behavior, the child was made to engage in an aversive activity
As a result, the problem behavior was less likely to occur in the future
An aversive activity is a low-probability behavior the person typically would not choose to engage
E.g. Alison aversive activity was cleaning the walls
E.g. Simon repeated practice of getting out of bed and going to the bathroom
This form of positive punishment is based on the Premack principle which states that when the
requirement to engage in a low-probability behavior (aversive activity) is made contingent on the
occurrence of a high-probability behavior (the problem behavior) the high probability behavior will
decrease in the future
Although an aversive stimulus is an environmental even that can be a punisher, an aversive activity
is a behavior that can be a punisher for another behavior
When applying an aversive activity as a positive punisher, he change agent instructs the client to
engage in the aversive activity immediately contingent on the problem behavior
Overcorrection is a procedure developed to decrease aggressive and disruptive behavior exhibited
by people with intellectual disabilities in institutional settings
In overcorrection, the client is required to engage in an effortful behavior for an extended period
contingent on each instance of the problem behavior
There are two forms of overcorrection Positive Practice and Restitution
Positive Practice
Client has to engage in correct forms of relevant behavior contingent on an instance of the
problem behavior
Client engages in the correct behavior with physical guidance if necessary for an extended
period or until the correct behavior has been repeated a number of time Overcorrection
b/c client has to engage in correct behavior many times in + practice
Procedure in which contingent on each instance of the problem behavior, the client must
correct the environmental effects of problem behavior and restore the environment to a
condition better than that which existed before the problem behavior
Physical guidance is used as needed to get the client to engage in the restitution activities
Contingent Exercise
Another positive punishment procedure involving the application of aversive activities
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