TextbookChapt17#.docx

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14 Apr 2012
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USING PUNISHMENT: TIME OUT AND RESPONSE COST
Chapter17
Punishment is a basic behavioral principle occurs when a behavior is followed by a consequence that results in
a decrease in the future probability of the behavior
Consequence of a behavior may involve the presentation of an aversive stimulus (positive stimulus) or the
removal of a reinforcing stimulus (negative punishment)
Punishment procedures are typically used only after functional intervention extinction, differential
reinforcement and antecedent manipulations
If functional procedures are ineffective, punishment procedures may be considered (but controversial)
An aversive stimulus is any stimulus whose contingent presentation decreases the future probability of a
behavior
Two common negative punishment procedures Time-out and Response cost
Time Out
The procedure in which a student was removed from the reinforcing activity in the classroom for a few minutes
contingent on an instance of the problem behavior a.k.a. A form of time out is contingent observation “
Decrease the occurrence of different problem behaviors
Child removed from the reinforcing situation for a brief period
What other behavioral procedures were used in conjunction w. time-out in these examples?
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior can be used
E.g. if Cheryl played appropriately, the teacher reinforced this behavior with attention
Types of Time Out
Timeout defined as the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period contingent on the problem
behavior which result is a decrease in the future probability of the problem behavior
Time out from positive reinforcement:
1. Non-exclusionary time out:
Cheryl remained in the classroom after the problem behavior but had to sit across the room from where
the other children played thus removed from the reinforcing activity
Interaction while still remaining in the room
The person remains in the room while being removed from access to positive reinforcers “
2. Exclusionary Time-out
Contingent on the problem behavior, Kenny was taken out of the room where he was TV or playing. He
was taken to a room where these reinforcers were not available
“ The person is removed from the room (the reinforcing environment) where the problem behavior
occurred and is taken to another room. This removes the person from all sources of positive
reinforcement
Using Reinforcement with Time-Out
When using time out, you should also use a differential reinforcement procedure
Time-out procedure eliminates access to positive reinforcers contingent on the problem behavior; important for
the person to have access to positive reinforcer through a DRA or DRO procedures
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