CHAPTER FIFTEEN.docx

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22 Apr 2012
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CHAPTER FIFTEEN
DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT
What are the three differential reinforcement behaviours that are used?
The three procedures are DRA, DRO, and DRL
DRA DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIOUR
This behavioural procedure is used to increase the frequency of a desirable behaviour and to decrease
the frequency of undesirable behaviours
The desirable behaviour is reinforced each time it occurs , you reinforce the behaviours that you want to
keep and you extinct the behaviours that you wish to diminish
Describe the situation of Mrs Williams
In the case of Mrs. Williams she was much more likely to complain when a nurse was present and this
got her the nurse’s attention
When she said positive things she got attention, but she didn’t get attention when she said negative
things
WHEN TO USE DRA?
You must determine if you want to increase the rate of a desirable behaviour, if the behaviour is
occurring @ least occasionally , and if you have access to a reinforcer that you can deliver after the
occurrence of the behaviour
DRA can be used to strengthen and to maintain behaviours such as shaping or prompting
HOW TO USE DRA
What are the steps to use DRA effectively?
1. Define the desirable behaviour
2. define the undesirable behaviours
3. identify the reinforcer ( often may be specific to the person that you are working with, you can
use the reinforcer that is currently maintaining the undesirable behaviour, or you can observe
the person and note which activities or interests she or he pursues, or you can specifically ask
people what they like doing, what do they enjoy etc, or they can try out a variety of different
stimuli and see which ones function , or you can make each potential reinforcer contingent on
an operant response)
4. Reinforce the Desirable behaviour immediately and consistently
5. Eliminate reinforcement for the Undesirable Behaviours
6. Use intermittent reinforcers to maintain target behaviours
7. Program for Generalization
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