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25 Apr 2012
Chapter 11 Chaining
Establishing operation incentive to make reinforcement more favorable
Task analysis
Observe competent person engage in task
Ask an expert
Perform task yourself and record each component responses best way
Each step to task analysis has a SD and response
Backward chaining use prompting and fading to teach the last behavior in the chain first; by starting
at last behavior the learner complete the chain on every learning trial
Always use least intrusive prompt necessary to get behaviour to occur
Praise at each stage becomes reinforce for response makes the outcome of each step a
conditioned reinforce as well as the SD the next response
Forward chaining present first SD, prompt correct response, provide reinforcer, then fade prompts
until first response is engaged without any prompts when SD is presented. After first response creates
second SD, prompt second response and provide reinforcer after it occurs
Must reinforce after each response because do not get natural reinforcer at the end of the chain
until you train last component
With backward chaining, once learner exhibits all behaviors, eventually switch from continuous
reinforcement schedule to intermittent reinforcement schedule to maintain behaviour
Artificial reinforcers are used until last component of the chain is taught
Total task presentation complex chain taught as single unit, total task completed in each learning
Graduated guidance use hand-over-hand guidance to lead learner through the task; provide less
less assistance and shadow learner’s hand as learner completes the task. Shadowing prevents errors
should be done a number of times. Fade physical guidance to shadowing, then fade shadowing
Chapter 12 Behavioral Skills Training (BST)
1. Modeling correct behavior demonstrated; model’s behaviour becomes SD for imitation
Model exhibits correct behavior resulting in successful outcome (reinforcer)
Relativity model resemble target audience
Complexity of model behaviour appropriate to developmental ability level of the learner
Learner has to pay attention
Modeled behaviour must occur in proper context (in response to SD)
Opportunity to rehearse (imitate)
2. Instructions describe appropriate behaviour
Presented at understandable level
Instructions delivered by someone with credibility
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Opportunity for rehearsal
Instructions paired with modeling
Learner must pay attention
Learner recite instructions
3. Rehearsal practice behaviour; teacher can see learner learned behaviour, reinforce
behaviour, assess and correct errors
Rehearsal in proper context
Rehearsals programmed for success
Incorrect behaviour should be given corrective feedback
Behaviour rehearsed until demonstrated correctly at least a few times
4. Feedback after rehearsal immediate feedback should be provided: praise, reinforcers, or
Feedback immediate
Include reinforcers
Praise descriptive
Do not be negative
Always praise some aspect before providing corrective feedback
Provide corrective feedback on one aspect at a time
Enhancing Generalizing after BST
Role plays similar to real-life situations
Incorporate real-life situations
Provide assignments to practice outside training session
Reinforcement of skills in situations outside training session
In Situ Assessment assessment of skills occurs in natural environment where skills are need and
individual is not aware assessment is taking place
Researcher may become SD for the use of skills because skills were reinforced only when
research was present during training
In Situ Training initially in situ assessment, if learner does not perform correctly, trainer intercepts
and turns assessment to training session
BST and Three-Term Contingency
Three-term contingency :
Antecedent modeling and instructions, role-playing; corrective feedback
Behaviour rehearsal of skill
Consequences feedback reinforces consequences that strengthens behavior
Advantages of Group BST training
More efficient because instructions and modeling presented to group
Each group member learns by watching other group members rehearse the skills and receive
feedback on their performances
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