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Chapter 2

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Applied Behavior Analysis, Intellectual Disability, Developmental Disability

Course Code
Jessica Dere

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Chapter 2 - Areas of Application: An Overview (PSYB45)
Modified behaviors range from simple motor skills to complex problem solving
In many areas such as nursing, education and etc, applications are increasing
Parenting & Child Management
Being a parent is challenging b/c they hold full responsibility for their children’s initial
behavioral development
Behavior techniques on behavior modification to teach their children to do specific tasks
Parent learned behavior strategies for solving their children’s sleep problems, nail biting
and etc problems
Some adolescence problems are huge, and it requires to teach parents to cope w/ problem
which leads to applied behavior analyst & behavior therapists treat the probs directly
“Triple P” – Positive Parenting Program (behavioral program) which has been most
effective multilevel parenting program to prevent & treat severe behavioral, emotional, &
developmental probs in children
Programs have developed for helping to decrease youth violence
Education: From Preschool to University
Early 1960s behavior modification applications in classrooms have progressed in many
Many applications in elementary school were initially designed to change student
behaviors that were disruptive/incompatible w/ academic learning
It focused on actions and study skills (reading, writing & etc)
“How to” descriptions of behavior modification techniques for teachers was published
by Alberto & Troutman , Cipani, & Schloss
Descriptions are also in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis & Journal of Behavior
Progress of behavior modification has made progress in physical education as well
Behavior modification approach to university teaching was developed by Fred S. Keller
& his colleagues in US and Brazil in 1960s
Variations of behavioral approaches to uni teaching have been described
Approaches have 3 common features
1. The instructional goals for a course are stated in the form of study questions &
application exercises
2. Students are given opportunities to demonstrate their mastery of the course
content through frequent tests or combo of tests & assignments
3. Students are given detailed info at the beginning of a course about what is
expected of them on the tests and assignments in order to achieve various letter
Keller’s approach, known as the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) includes a
lot of features (mastery criteria where students must perform at a high level on a
test/written assignment b4 proceeding the next part of course, & the use of student
assistants called proctors to immediately score tests or written assignment
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B4 the widespread use of computers, PSI courses require a lot of labor to admin b/c
frequent testing & extensive record keeping that PSI requires
Rise of computer tech some instructors have automated most of the PSI procedure to
make it more efficient
Innovative feature of CAPSI is the use of students in the same course who mastered a
given unit of study material to act as proctors (called “peer reviewers”) for that study unit
Research on CAPSI courses has demonstrated measurable feedback accuracy by peer
reviewers & compliance w/ feedback by students
Students in CAPSI course receive a lot more substantive feedback than would be possible
in a course taught using traditional methods
Development Disabilities
Early 1960s, most success of behavior modification occurred in applications to people w/
severe behavioral limitations due to atypical childhood development
Intellectual disabilities & autism are 2 types of developmental disabilities that have
received particular attention from behavior modifiers
During the other half of 20th C, it was common to se the term mental retardation to refer
to individuals w/ intellectual impairments
1960s a lot proposed alternative to the term mental retardation was the term
developmental disability which is is commonly used by many today
According to the Developmental Disabilities Act in USA, the term developmental
disability is broader meaning than the term mental retardation
Intellectual disability is the preferred term for the disability historically referred to as
mental retardation by Association on Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities (AAID)
Intellectual Disabilities
AAIDD defines “intellectual disability” as a disability that originates b4 age 18 and is
characterized by significant limitations both in adaptive behavior & intellectual
The latter imitation is defined as a score of 70 to 75 or below standardized IQ tests which
takes up 2.3% of pop
A lot of studies demonstrated the effectiveness of behavioral techniques for teaching
people w/ intellectual disabilities behaviors such as self-help skills, social
skills,communication skills, vocational skills, leisure-time activities, & a variety of
community survival behaviors
Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , children w/ autism spectrum
disorders (ASDs) show combo of impaired social behavior, impaired communication &
repetitive self-simulatory behaviors
Will show behavior similar to children diagnosed w/ intellectual disabilities which
make them score less than avg on variety if self-care tasks, such as dressing,
grooming & feeding
In 1960s & 70s, Ivar Lovaas developed behavioral treatments for children w/ autism
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