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Chapter 1

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Applied Behavior Analysis, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Behavior Modification

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Jessica Dere

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Chapter 1 – Introduction (PSYB45)
What is Behavior?
Commonly used words: action, activity, reaction, responding, performance
Behavior is generally - Anything a person says/does
Technically – muscular, glandular, or electrical activity of an organism
Getting an A in PSYB45 and losing weight are products of behaviours
Overt (visible) behaviors – walking, talking & etc
Covert (invisible) behavior – thoughts and feelings about love
requires special instruments to see what’s happening, like brain being hooked up to a
machine to see what one’s dreaming about and to find out why they are having such
aka cognitive behaviours
Covert & overt behaviors are influenced by behavior modification
Characters of behavior that can be measured are called dimensions of behavior
Duration – length it lasts
Frequency – how much times happens in given time period
Intensity/force – physical effort/energy involved in emitting the behavior
Summary Labels for Behavior
General terms: honest, care free, hardworking, unreliable & etc are summaries for human
actions but aren’t specific behaviors
Man being nervous, people will know what it means but the doesn’t know the
specific actions done when nervous
For behavior modification specialists, many terms used by psychologists: intelligence,
attitudes & creativity are also summary labels
Intelligence: it’s innate and how people can readily solve probs
Can’t be directly measured can be only used as an adjective/adverb to
describe how one is acting w/i given situation, cant be used as noun
Attitude: bad behavior
Creativity: behavior that person engage under certain situation , emits novel or
unusual behavior frequently & has desirable effects
Autism, depression, anxiety & etc are all summary terms used by psychologists
Good: provides quick general info, provide signs of which treatment to give
Pseudo-explanation/circular reasoning: if someone reads words
backwards, someone gives an Pseudo (false)-explanation
Bad: negatively affects how person is treated or how one might feel & behave
Behavioral deficits: too lil of behavior, behavioral excess: too much of a behavior both
lead into authority/other person to seek helped for the person that is taken under
consideration to create desirable behavior
Behaviors are described as behavior deficits/excess b/c
1. Want to help avoid problems
2. Behaviour that causes concerns must be treated
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3. Specific procedures are now available that can be used to improve behaviors in many
places – techniques of behavior modification
What is Behavior Modification?
Behavior modification involves systematic application of learning principles & techniques
to assess & improve individuals’ covert & overt behaviors in order to enhance their daily
functioning. It has 7 characteristics
1. Its strong emphasis on defining problems in terms of behavior that can be
measured in some way & using changes in the behavioral measure of the
problem as the best indicator of the extent to which the problem is being helped
2. Treatment procedures & techniques are ways of altering an individual’s current
To help a person fully
Physical variables that make up a person’s environment are called stimuli – are
the people, objects & events currently present in one’s immediate surroundings
that interrupt on one’s sense receptors and affect behavior
Treatment is more than talk therapy/verbal therapy (need to know about client
behavior and environment stimulus in order to come up w/ effective treatment
3. Methods & rationales can be described precisely allows behavior modifiers to
read descriptions of procedures used by their collegues, replicate, & get same results
4. Techniques of behavior modification are often applied by individuals in
everyday life
5. Techniques stem from basic & applied research in the science of learning in
general and the principles of operant & Pavlovian conditioning in particular
6. Behavior medication emphasizes scientific demonstration that a particular
intervention or treatment was responsible for a particular
intervention/treatment was responsible for a particular behavior change
7. It places high value on accountability for everyone involved in behavior
modification programs
What is Behavior Assessment?
Target behaviors are behaviors to be improved in a behavior modification program
Behavioral assessment involves the collection & analysis of info & data in order to
a) Indentify & describe target behaviors
b) Identify possible causes of the behavior
c) Guide the selection of an appropriate behavioral treatment
d) Evaluate treatment outcome
Ex) functional analysis which involves isolating through experimentation the causes of
problem behavior & removing or reversing them
Demand for assessments has gone up for the last 5 decades
Some Historical Highlights
Behavior therapy, applied behavior analysis & cognitive behavior therapy are
application of learning principles to help individuals improve their behavior
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