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Chapter 5

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Token Economy, Reinforcement


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere
Chapter
5

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Chapter 5 – Increasing Behavior with Conditioned Reindforcemment
Unconditioned & Conditioned Reinforcers
Stimuli or events are important for our biological functioning/survival as species and are
called unconditioned reinforcers (reinforcing w/o prior learning or conditioning)
Conditioned reinforcers are stimuli that were not originally reinforcing but have
become reinforcers by being paired or associated with other reinforcers
When stimulis becomes conditioned through deliberate association w/ other reinforcers,
the other reinforcers are called backup reinforcers
Backup reinforcers for conditioned reinforcers could also be other conditioned
reinforcer (ex. money is backup reinforcer for reinforcers like a laptop, or a phone
& etc)
Tokens as Conditioned Reinforcers
Tokens are conditioned reinforcers that can be accumulated and exchange for back-up
reinforcers – token economy or token system
The main average of using token or other conditioned reinforcers in a behavior
modification program is that they can usually be delivered more immediately than the
backup reinforcer can
Helps to bridge delays between behavior and powerful reinforcers
Conditioned punishment: a stimulus that is paired w/ reinforcement becomes
reinforcing itself, so a stimulus that is paired w/ punishment becomes punishing itself (ex.
“NO!” “STOP” & etc b/c that are often followed by punishment if the individual
continues to engage in behavior that provoked them
Simple Vs. Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers
A conditioned reinforcer that is paired w/ a single backup reinforcer is called a simple
conditioned reinforcer
Stimulus that is paired w/ more than one kind of back-up reinforcer is called a
generalized conditioned reinforcer
We are highly likely to engage in behaviors that are followed by praise, even when not
deprived of a specific reinforcer
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement
1. The strength of backup reinforcers
Reinforcing power if a conditioned reinforcer depends in part on the reinforcing
power of the backup reinforcer(s) on which it is based
2. The variety of backup reinforcers
the reinforcing power of a conditioned reinforcer depends in part on the number
of backup reinforcers w/ which is has been paired
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