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Chapter 10

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Stimulus Control, The Fading, Classical Conditioning

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Jessica Dere

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Chapter 10 – Changing the Stimulus Control of a Behavior w/ Fading (PSYB45)
Fading is the gradual change over successive trials of an antecedent stimulus that
controls a response so that response eventually occurs to partially changed or completely
new antecedent stimulus (the stimuli that exists just prior to the occurrence of behavior).
Ex) child would only say its name after someone says “Peter” (antecedent stimulus),
through fading the antecedent stimulus shifts another antecedent stimulus which is
“what’s your name?”
Fading happens in everyday lives when someone teaches a behavior to another
usually works with parents when helping the child to walk or to ride a bike
whenever a stimulus has strong control over a response, fading is useful procedure from
transferring control from one stimulus to another
errorless discrimination training/errorless learning is the use of fading procedure to
establish a stimulus discrimination so don’t occur
people needed t learn from mistakes but now b/c errorless transfer of a
discrimination can occur and it has 3 advantages from trail & error
1. errors consume valuable time
2. if error occurs once, it tends to occur many times even after being
3. the nonreinforcement occurs when errors are being extinguished often
produces emotional side effects (tantrums, aggressiveness, attempts of
escape from situation)
Fading procedures: teaching a young child to name an object, need to go through steps:
1. point to object and say the object’s name until the child mimics the name a lot of
times & immediately reinforce each correct response
2. when child always mimics, insert question and at the same time gradually fade out
saying object name
script-fading procedures have been used to teach children w/ autism to initiate
interactions w/ others
fading is used to teach tracing, copying and drawing shapes, numerals & letter of the
tracing – heavy dots and then make them trace assisting child’s hand and fade
away the control of hand and make them do it by themselves
then the heavy dots will fade away and bring in light dots for tracing
Dimensions of a Stimuli for Fading
dimensions of stimulus is any characteristic that can be measured on some continuum
fading occurs along dimensions of stimuli (ex. loudness, pressure)
with children w/ autism, a group of children was expected to respond appropriately in a
classroom setting, children were expected to behave appropriately to classroom setting,
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