Fear and anxiety reduction procedures are based on principles of operant and respondent
Fear: composed of both operant and respondent behaviour.
Anxiety: the bodily responses are respondent behaviours called
-The Automatic NS involved in anxiety is an establ ishing operation that makes it more likely
that the person will engage in escape or avoidance behaviour at that time.
-Sometimes a problem behaviour tha t appears to be a fear or anxiety problem is simply an
operant behaviour with no respondent behaviour or fear component. ---Problem ( and vice
*Operant behaviour positively or negatively reinforced
Relaxation Training: strategies people use to decrease the autonomic arousal that they
experience as a component of fear and anxiety problems. Relaxation behaviours, t hat results in
bodily responses opposite to the autonomic arousal.
-Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR): the person systematically tenses and relaxes each of the
major muscle groups in the body. Tensing and relaxing the muscles leaves them more relaxed
than in their initial state.
PMR teaches people to control their own muscle tension so they can decrease muscle
tension in situations in which they are likely to experience more tension
-Diaphragmatic Breathing(deep breathing) : the person breathes deeply in a slow, rhythmic
fashion. At each inhalation, the person uses the muscles of the diaphragm to pull oxygen deep
into the lungs.
Anxiety has shal low, rapid breathing so DB decreases anxiety by replacing this
breathing patter with a more relaxed pattern
They should focus on the breathing so they are less likely to think anxiety provoking
-Attention focusing exercise: produce relaxation by directing attention to a neutral or pleasant
stimulus to remove t he person’s attention from the anxiety-producing stimulus.
Meditation, guided imagery, and hypnosis all produce relaxation through a mechanism
of attention focusing
-Behavioral relaxation training: the person is taught to relax each muscle group in the body by
assuming relaxed postures.
Similar to PMR but the person does not tense and relax each muscle group