PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15-28, 30: Seat Belt, Comorbidity, Uptodate

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Published on 4 Apr 2016
Respondent and Operant
Conditioning Together 02/22/2016
Any given experience is likely to include both respondent and
operant conditioning
EX: kid gets knocked down by large dog
orespondent: sight of dog becomes CS because paired with
being knocked down (US)
ooperant: sight of dog is conditioned punisher, so likely to
avoid large dogs
(a) the feeling component, which is internal, private, and subjective
(b) an overt, public, and objective component
Our emotions have 3 components:
1. the autonomic reaction that you feel during the experience
of an emotion (respondent)
2. the way that you learn to express an emotion overtly
(influenced by operant)
3. becoming aware of and describing your emotions (operant)
The Respondent Component: Our Feelings
oinvolves reflexes of the digestive system, the circulatory
system, and the respiratory system
ocontrolled by autonomic nervous system
oThese internal reactions prepare the body for fighting or
fleeing … survival value
oSome respondent behaviors are a part of skeletal reflexes
(also called motor reflexes)
oEX: sucking, startle, Moro, stepping, swimming reflexes
disappear as child grows
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oEX: blink, cough, gag, sneeze, yawn reflex
continue through lifetime
oskeletal reflexes may not be as easily conditioned by
respondent conditioning as autonomic reflexes are
oprimary emotions
fear, anger, joy, happiness, sadness, interest,
anticipation, and excitement
osecondary emotions
envy, jealousy, anxiety, guilt, shame, relief, hope,
depression, pride, love, gratitude, and compassion
develop after the primary emotions and are thought by
some emotion researchers to stem from the primary
An Operant Component: Our Actions
oIn a situation that causes anger, one person might clench her
fists and swear, while another person in that same situation
might count to ten and walk away
oBecause the operant component of emotions depends on each
individual’s conditioning history, these secondary displays of
emotion vary from person to person and from culture to
oEX: bad sports is “booed” in US and whistled in Europe
Another Operant Component: Our Awareness and Descriptions
omany emotions are not easily described or defined
owe can account for this difficulty to some extent by
considering the multiple sources of control over the naming of
our emotions
owhen labeling emotions, we don’t always have access to the
emotion-causing events, the inner feelings
Some Causes of Emotions
o4 major emotions
joy: Presentation of reinforcers
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anger: Withholding or withdrawing reinforcers
anxiety: presentation of aversive stimuli
relief: withdrawal of aversive stimuli
oEmotions can occur on a continuum from very mild to very
oReinforcers and aversive stimuli play a role in causing
emotions (withholding or presenting ...)
A Respondent Component: Our Imagery
oimagining probably comes about through respondent
oconditioned seeing (through experience)
EX: If you grew up in an English-speaking country, you
experienced many trials in which the words “our flag”
were paired with actually looking at the flag. As a
consequence, when you close your eyes and imagine
the flag, the words likely elicit activity in the visual part
of your brain so that you experience the behavior of
“seeing” the actual flag
oalso conditioned sensing
EX: you had a sexual partner who consistently used a
distinctive perfume … One day when someone wearing
that same perfume walked past that individual in a
department store, he immediately imagined seeing the
partner (conditioned seeing) and felt “tingly”
(conditioned feeling)
An Operant Component: Our Self-Talk
oAnother type of thinking is self-directed verbal behavior, or
oWe learn to talk silently to ourselves at a very early age
largely because we encounter punishers when we think out
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