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Chapter 9

PSYB45 - Chapter 9.docx

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Zachariah Campbell

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Behavioral Modification: Principles & Procedures
Chapter 9 Shaping
Shaping is used to develop a target behavior that a person does not currently
Shaping is defined at the differential reinforcement of successive
approximations of a target behavior until the person exhibits the target
behavior differential reinforcement involves the basic principles of
reinforcement and extinction
Successive approximations are the shaping steps to begin shaping, you
identify an existing behavior that is an approximation of the target behavior
(called the starting behavior or first approximation) and reinforce it so they
show the behavior more often, you then stop reinforcing the behavior and
the extinction burst to allow novel behaviors to occur the reinforce again
Shaping is used for the acquisition of a novel topography or a novel
dimension of behavior or to instate a behavior that the person does not
currently exhibit
o The starting behavior must be a behavior the person already engages
in, at least occasionally and have relevance to the target behavior
Must have a reinforcing consequence to differentially reinforce each
successive approximation, once the behavior starts to occur reliably you stop
reinforcing it to force novel behavior (or the next step)
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